types of communication and its effects

Elaborate with example the various types of communication and its effects in various situations.
Communication is a process of exchanging information, ideas, thoughts, feelings and emotions through speech, signals, writing, or behavior. In communication process, a sender(encoder) encodes a message and then using a medium/channel sends it to the receiver (decoder) who decodes the message and after processing information, sends back appropriate feedback/reply using a medium/channel.
There are five types of communication
Communication that takes place within himself or herself is called intrapersonal communication. Conversation with self and planning or thinking about the schedule of your study for an examination etc. are the examples of intrapersonal communication.
It is the process in which communication takes place between two or a small group of persons. Interpersonal communication always takes place into a face to face situation and the communicator and destination are known to each other.
This is most effective form of communication, mainly because the feedback is instant in this situation. Speech of a political leader in a big stadium is the best example of macro group communication. It usually takes place through microphone and the element of feedback is workable in this type of communication. For example the receiver (public) cans instantly feedback in the shape of applauding to the politician or by hooting his speech.
Mass communication is the one in which the message is sent simultaneously to a greater number of people through a mass medium like radio, T.V or newspaper. The receivers of the Mass Communication are separated, heterogeneous and unknown to each other as well as to the communicator. The process of feedback in this type of communication is mostly slow and delayed.
It is the one which has some characteristics of interpersonal communication, and some of mass communication. In Media communication, the message is transmitted through television, telephone etc.
Human Communication
People communicate with each other in a number of ways that depend upon the message and its context in which it is being sent. Choice of communication channel and your style of communicating also affects communication. So, there are variety of types of communication.
Types of communication based on the communication channels used are:
1.      Verbal Communication
2.      Nonverbal Communication
1.      Verbal Communication
Verbal communication refers to the the form of communication in which message is transmitted verbally; communication is done by word of mouth and a piece of writing. Objective of every communication is to have people understand what we are trying to convey. In verbal communication remember the acronym KISS(keep it short and simple).
When we talk to others, we assume that others understand what we are saying because we know what we are saying. But this is not the case. usually people bring their own attitude, perception, emotions and thoughts about the topic and hence creates barrier in delivering the right meaning.
So in order to deliver the right message, you must put yourself on the other side of the table and think from your receiver’s point of view. Would he understand the message? how it would sound on the other side of the table?
Verbal Communication is further divided into:
§  Oral Communication
§  Written Communication
Oral Communication
In oral communication, Spoken words are used. It includes face-to-face conversations, speech, telephonic conversation, video, radio, television, voice over internet. In oral communication, communication is influence by pitch, volume, speed and clarity of speaking.
Advantages of Oral communication are:
It brings quick feedback.
In a face-to-face conversation, by reading facial expression and body language one can guess whether he/she should trust what’s being said or not.
Disadvantage of oral communication
In face-to-face discussion, user is unable to deeply think about what he is delivering, so this can be counted as a
Written Communication
In written communication, written signs or symbols are used to communicate. A written message may be printed or hand written. In written communication message can be transmitted via email, letter, report, memo etc. Message, in written communication, is influenced by the vocabulary & grammar used, writing style, precision and clarity of the language used.
Written Communication is most common form of communication being used in business. So, it is considered core among business skills.
Memos, reports, bulletins, job descriptions, employee manuals, and electronic mail are the types of written communication used for internal communication. For communicating with external environment in writing, electronic mail, Internet Web sites, letters, proposals, telegrams, faxes, postcards, contracts, advertisements, brochures, and news releases are used.
Advantages of written communication includes:
Messages can be edited and revised many time before it is actually sent.
Written communication provides record for every message sent and can be saved for later study.
A written message enables receiver to fully understand it and send appropriate feedback.
Disadvantages of written communication includes:
Unlike oral communication, Written communication doesn’t bring instant feedback.
It takes more time in composing a written message as compared to word-of-mouth. and number of people struggles for writing ability.
2.      Nonverbal Communication
Nonverbal communication is the sending or receiving of wordless messages. We can say that communication other than oral and written, such as gesturebody language, posturetone of voice or facial expressions, is called nonverbal communication. Nonverbal communication is all about the body language of speaker.
Nonverbal communication helps receiver in interpreting the message received. Often, nonverbal signals reflect the situation more accurately than verbal messages. Sometimes nonverbal response contradicts verbal communication and hence affects the effectiveness of message.
Nonverbal communication has the following three elements:
Speaker: clothing, hairstyle, neatness, use of cosmetics
Surrounding: room size, lighting, decorations, furnishings
Body Language
facial expressions, gestures, postures
Voice Tone, Volume, Speech rate
Types of Communication Based on Purpose and Style
Based on style and purpose, there are two main categories of communication and they both bears their own characteristics. Communication types based on style and purpose are:
1.      Formal Communication
2.      Informal Communication
1.      Formal Communication
In formal communication, certain rules, conventions and principles are followed while communicating message. Formal communication occurs in formal and official style. Usually professional settings, corporate meetings, conferences undergoes in formal pattern.
In formal communication, use of slang and foul language is avoided and correct pronunciation is required. Authority lines are needed to be followed in formal communication.
2.      Informal Communication
Informal communication is done using channels that are in contrast with formal communication channels. It’s just a casual talk. It is established for societal affiliations of members in an organization and face-to-face discussions. It happens among friends and family. In informal communication use of slang words, foul language is not restricted. Usually. informal communication is done orally and using gestures.
Informal communication, Unlike formal communication, doesn’t follow authority lines. In an organization, it helps in finding out staff grievances as people express more when talking informally. Informal communication helps in building relationships.
Communication generally and mass communication in particular has a great deal to serve a diversity of purposes human beings have always wished to achieve. The strong effects of striving to achieve purposes of human communication are visible and helped bring harmony of living in a number of ways. Here we will see how the process of communication at different scales has helped people of different societies to benefit from exchanging views (messages) on subjects of their interest. First we will see to what effect the communication stands for.
Communication experts have figured out some techniques for effective communication:
Effective Message
The message needs to be designed in such a way that the receiver receives the same what the sender wants to communicate. It is only possible when:
1.           The message is written in the easiest language.
2.            Sentence of the message is short and simple.
3.            Avoid jaw breaking and tongue twisting words.
4.            The message is designed according to the mental level of targeted receiver or audiences.
5.            Select only those words or signs which are common to the field of experience of both the communicator and receiver.
Selection of suitable medium
Medium plays a vital role in making the communication effective. Following are the key points:
1.    Select the medium for which the receivers can have an easy access.
2.    They can buy it easily.
3.    It can communicate in the language of the target destination.
Receiver Attention
Communication should be made at such time that it can gain the attention of the receiver.
Example: – It would be an effective communication when the intended receiver is quite relaxed or waiting for such communication.
Social Value
The message of the communication will be effective if it is composed according to the social values of the given society. For example :- If there is an advertisement about the publicity of vine in a society like Pakistan, people will react to it and thus the communication would be useless. But if the same communication is designed for the British society it will then be an effective communication. So, for an effective communication it is necessary to consider the norms, customs, traditions and religious philosophy of the society.
Communication and Mental Harmony :
The success and failure of communication greatly depends upon the fact that whether it has harmony with the mental level of the receiver or not. For example
You intend to produce a T.V programme for the children of 8 years on a religious topic. The format of the programme Is table discussion. According to my assessment it will be a failure programme and boring for the children because it is difficult for an 8 years child to get meaning from the discussion.

The immediate effect of communication is to discover something – from an individual to an idea to physical exploration – as a consequence of generating a message. For centuries human beings have been striving to explore the world around them. Nothing more has helped them in this quest than the communication. It is usually the answer to a communication which brings in certain effects of discovery. Even to day when two people meet the communication starts from here; my name is Sara and what is yours? Or, I live in Karachi and (where do) you (live)? It is an instinct of human nature to discover matters around him or her. The process of communication over the centuries has helped tremendously to mankind explore the world around and develop a civilization.
Next to discovering, the most important effect of communication is to create relationship with people and things around. A piece of communication is always targeted towards other people with whom you want to have a relationship, or with whom a relationship – of friendship or enmity – already exist. Usually the effect of communication is that a new relationship is set or a fresh dimension, which may be strengthening an existing relationship, is given. And this phenomenon is not confined to individuals. Nations have been seen striving to use the tool of communication to bring this effect. High level diplomats and even heads of states are seen engaged in fresh communication with their counterparts from societies with whom little association has been witnessed in the past.
The mass communication has always worked strongly to fetch this effect to societies living a distance apart from each other.
Historically, many a travelers roamed about the world even when traveling facilities had been scant, to communicate and establish relationship. In many cases an effort by a small group of travelers had helped set up long lasting relationships between people of two societies.
Helping Out Others
Hallmark of communication effects has been the human effort to provide assistance to other fellow beings. It is due to communication from one part of the world to another that the suffering humanity is saved from various disasters. At a lower scale as well, a piece of communication works miracle to save lives of many. Think of a situation when a house catches fire and a family is trapped inside. One call to rescue operation team – a piece of communication, I will say – activates so much movement of rescuers that in most cases many lives are saved from what could have been a major catastrophe. Hurricanes, excessive rains, earthquakes, epidemics and floods are but everyday occurring around the globe but almost in every tragedy no sooner a communication is made, help starts pouring in from all around.
Stimulation, or persuasion, is another effect caused on human beings by communication. An advice from a teacher may effect into activating students to work more seriously, or conduct research on a given topic. At mass level, an appeal from a cherished leader to donate blood or to draw certain measures may do a magic. For instance in the wake of soaring sugar prices if an appeal – a communication- is made from a leader asking people to reduce use of the sweetener may work more than other administrative measures and the price may start falling due to low demand.
It is commonly observed that an organized and well thought after piece of communication causes a great deal of persuasion on matters of common interest.
Among effects of communication one huge area is the relief which is effective when an exchange of ideas or even receiving of messages is done in common life. It is a frequent sightseeing people telling jokes to ward off their worries. Watching a humorous TV play
when one is tense does substantially well to change the mood and lessen the anxiety level. Similarly, watching a tense match and seeing your favorite team winning eventually relaxes you to a large extent. The effect of communication in relaxing people is also observed in meta-communication in which one is involved with nonliving things as well.
Social Growth
Growth of social values, physical structures and increase in the overall intellectual level of a society are result of the net effect it receives from the everyday communication.
The exchange of message on scores of issues commonly shared by the people living in one society always lead to organizing people in a better way. The coherence in living style gives a sort of strength to people of one community which distinguishes it from others. Likewise, sharing of economic knowledge by the people of same society is the effect of common swapping of expertise which some people have gained by their individual efforts.
The present campaign of globalization and all the debate originating from it is a clear effect of the communication which has been taking place on this subject over the decades. It is a matter of common sense that the new approach of one village is going to benefit almost all the people who excel in any field of life. Again, it is a piece of communication which will make people in the same village to come to know how they can benefit from the expertise of others.

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