Media and Mass communication scope in Pakistan

Media and Mass communication scope in Pakistan

Scope of Media Studies and mass communication in Pakistan?

Thounsands of students have this query online and question and often wonder if there is any scope for media studies and mass communication study as a best career in Pakistan. The jobs and vacancies for mass communication graduates in Pakistan have been increasing a lot. Numerous private channels either news and entertainment required media and mass communication specialists. However, before choosing a degree program, make sure where your interest lies, many of students are looking confused between journalism, media studies and mass communication.

Definition of Mass Communication is as Mass communication is about the masses (Large number of people or groups). It is collectively the way of highlighting and discussing the groups. This includes cinemas, videos, media channels, and photography. Journalism is more structured and focused more on writings and contents management. Media Studies and mass communication also play vital role in development support communication.

However, the list below shows the type of jobs that are open for media and mass communication graduates in Pakistan:

Salary of Media & Mass Communication Graduates in Pakistan

The job and careers possibilities are endless for those with a degree in mass communications and media studies or who want to get this diploma or degree. It opens a gateway to a number of opportunities. The salary of these field persons range varies as Media businesses or Media industries have different pay range. On average, the salary starts from 40,000/month.

Hence, choosing mass communication as your degree is undoubtedly a good option as the future of mass communication, and the media industry is bright. The media industry constantly looks for talented, hardworking, and skilled professionals. As a mass communications graduate, you will have many career options. Besides, if an individual is persistent in something they are interested in, they will surely achieve positive results.

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5 Reasons to Study Communication in College

A degree or study in communication is a gateway to many professions. It is one of the most prestigious courses you can undertake in college. There are few slots to study communication, making admission very competitive. The field also requires an outgoing personality, limiting opportunities for students who would prefer a drawn-back life.

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A communication degree will involve a lot of writing, photo handling, videos, editing, and interviews, among others. You can pay for assignments to be done UK while you focus on sharpening your skills in readiness for the competitive communications work environment. Here are some of the reasons you should study communication in college.

    1. Lucrative job offers

Communication graduates hold some of the most lucrative jobs. They are the faces of their brands and companies. For instance, they work as journalists gathering news each day and anchoring it on television. People associate media stations with particular personalities. Most of the popular anchors are communication graduates.
Communication and PR managers in corporate organizations have studied communication. They hold press conferences and appear in events on behalf of their bosses. They will appear on magazines and television or radio programs discussing their companies, new products, and partnerships. The job will thrust you into the limelight.
Companies invest in people who represent their brand. The investment comes in the form of good pay and other lucrative packages. You get to travel around the world at the expense of the company. Communication experts are some of the most connected professionals. You meet and interact with global brands. It is a lucrative area to work.

    1. Opportunity to work in diverse fields

Almost all work environments require study communication experts. Your role will be to streamline internal communication as well as link the company with external partners. You edit speeches, research press releases, and draft documents, among other roles.
A communication graduate, therefore, has a chance to work in his dream industry. Whether you want to work at a law firm, in a hospital, government department, community-based organization, NGO, or international organization, the opportunity is available. Communication studies open opportunities to work in diverse fields where you can exploit and demonstrate your passion.

    1. Excellent for entrepreneurship and self-employment

Are you looking for self-employment and entrepreneurship opportunities? A degree in communication is the perfect course to pursue. Training centers around writing, photography, video, editing, and event management, among others.
Writing skills are in high demand. You can work as a freelancer while still employed. You can start a blog on your favorite topic, helping you to earn online. If you love photography or video, you use your communication skills to start a production company.
Communication-related businesses require minimal skills to start. For instance, you can start a blog with a phone or your ordinary laptop. It takes a simple camera to start a photography business. Such reduced cost opens numerous opportunities for you to start successful businesses in communication.

    1. You possess life skills

Communication skills are valuable for life. The world will require writers forever. It also needs professional video and photo handlers. You can continue writing or blogging into your senior years. You will, therefore, acquire the most valuable skills by
studying communication.

    1. Opens room for freelancing

Do you have a freelancing spirit? Do you want to multiply your income? Take a study communication course. You can write for individuals and organizations while you still work for your current employer. It is a chance to expand your income.
Communication studies offer a wide range of professional options. You can work in the media or corporate organizations, holding some of the most lucrative positions. Communication studies also leave you with valuable life skills that you can use for freelancing or entrepreneurship. It is one of the most prestigious courses you can pursue.

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Create an Impressive Fact Sheet

Figure out how to make an amazing Fact sheet and gain admittance to Bit’s shrewd pre-made truth sheet layout! Peruse on… Compacting experiences in regards to your business or about your thing or organization into a lone file can be a repetitive task. Regardless, why might you have to make this chronicle anyway?
For Novices, giving every one of the essential information about your business or thing in a compacted report simplifies it and rapid for others to get what you do and why would it be advisable for them they really think about it.
Fact sheet assume a gigantic part in Public Realtions, deals,onboarding of new delegates, pitching to monetary sponsor, giving an association layout to assistants and clients, etc It’s a basic approach to guaranteeing these substances can grasp the indispensable bits of your business quickly and reasonably.

What is a Fact Sheet? (Definition)

A fact sheet, also known as a factsheet and fact file is a one-sheet document, usually, a single page long, which comprises information and data about a company, startup, organization, or the product or service they provide.
A Factsheet records all the main data, reality, figures all around a specific theme, in a visual way, with the support of document, outliners, images, and so forth

Fact sheets regularly

A Fact sheet records every one of the key information, real factors, and figures around a particular subject, in a visual way, with the help of reports, layouts, pictures, etc

Fact sheets routinely contain association frame, thing information, experiences, particular data, FAQs, records, “how-to” pages, educational material, and so on.

The one thing you ought to take remarkable thought of while making truth sheets is to make them comprehended, new, and concise. They are commonly displayed in a visual plan to pressure key information. Contain organization outline, item data, insights, specialized information, FAQs, records, “how-to” pages, instructive material, etc.

The one thing you should take exceptional consideration of while making truth sheets is to make them understood, fresh,

Include an overview of the organisation, information on the items, insights, specific knowledge, FAQs, records, “how-to” pages, educational material, etc.

Making truth sheets understandable, new, and concise is the one thing you should give special focus to. Typically, they are presented visually to highlight important information.

Why create a fact sheet?

Here are a few different ways reality sheets are utilized by organizations:

  • Item or administration reality sheets can be made for the deals and advertising groups to disperse to customers, accomplices, or possibilities.
  • A startup reality sheet can be created as a presentation for financial backers and investors.
  • Truth sheets can be created for inhouse announcing. For instance, the money division can make Fact sheets for the organization’s Q2 or Q3 profit and disseminate them inside or to investors.
  • Association fact sheets for HR.
  • Fact sheets as advertising material and deals enablement content.
  • PR and media relationship Fact sheets can give columnists all the data they need to expound on you.
  • Fact sheets are vital for all-size organizations and have a huge number of utilization cases.
  • Not with standing, prior to making a reality sheet, you ought to consistently be completely clear with regards to the reason for making it and its target group. Really at that time you will actually want to make an instructive truth sheet that your perusers will focus on and appreciate.
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Cultural Studies Perspectives on International Communication

While much of the debate on international communication post-1945 and during the Cold War emphasized a structural analysis of its role in political and economic power relationships, there has been a discernible shift in research emphasis in the 1990s in parallel with the ‘depoliciticization’ of politics towards the cultural dimensions of communication and media. The cultural analysis of communication also has a well established theoretical tradition to draw upon, from Gramsci’s theory of hegemony to the works of the critical theorists of the Frankfurt School.
One group of scholars who adapted Gramsci’s notions of hegemony were based at the Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies at the University of Birmingham in Britain. Led by the Caribbean-born scholar Stuart Hall, ‘the Birmingham School’, as it came to be known in the 1970s did pioneering work on exploring the textual analysis of media, especially television, and ethnographic research. Particularly influential was Hall’s model of ‘encodingdecoding media discourse’ which theorized about how media texts are given ‘preferred readings’ by producers and how they may be interpreted in different ways – from accepting the dominant meaning; negotiating with the encoded message, or taking an oppositional view (Hall, 1980).
The model was widely adopted by scholars interested in the study of the ideological role of the mass media. However, the research focus of the Birmingham School was largely British, and more often than not, its perceptions of the ‘global’ were based on the ethnographic studies of migrant populations – their television viewing habits, consumption of music and other leisure activities. The undue emphasis on ethnic and racial identity and ‘multiculturalism’, tended to limit their research perspectives, exposing them to the danger, for example, of confusing ‘British Asian cultural identity’ with the diverse cultures and subcultures of the South Asian region, with its multiplicity of languages, ancient religions and ethnicities.
The dominant Western view of the global South is profoundly influenced by Eurocentricism, defined by the Egyptian theorist Samir Amin as constituting ‘one dimension of the culture and ideology of the modern capitalist world’ (Amin, 1988: vii). Many other scholars from the developing world have argued that contemporary representations of the global South are affected by the way the Orient has been historically constructed in Western thinking, for example, through travel writing (Kabbani, 1986), literature (Said, 1978; 1993) and films (Shohat and Stam, 1994), contributing to a continuity of subordination of non-European peoples in Western imagination. The US-based Palestinian scholar Edward Said has explored how dominant culture participated in the expansion and consolidation of nineteenth-century imperialism. Taking the Gramscian view of culture, Said writes:
“Western cultural forms can be taken out of the autonomous enclosures in which they have been protected, and placed instead in the dynamic global environment created by imperialism, itself revised as an ongoing contest between North and South, metropolis and periphery, white and native.” (1993:59)
Though the cultural studies approach professes to give voice to such issues – race, ethnicity, gender and sexuality remain its key concerns – it has generally rendered less importance to class-based analysis, despite the fact that championing the ‘popular’ has been a major achievement of this tradition. The cultural studies approach to communication has become increasingly important, especially in the USA and Australia and with its new-found interest in ‘global popular’, the trend is towards the internationalization of cultural studies.

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The Public Sphere – International Communication

A natural heir to the critical theorists, the German sociologist Jiirgen Habermas (born 1929) also lamented the standardization, massification and atomization of the public. Habermas developed the concept of the public sphere in one of his earliest books, though it was 27 years before it appeared in English translation as The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere:
“An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society, in 1989. He defined the public sphere as an arena, independent of government (even if in receipt of state funds) and also enjoying autonomy from partisan economic forces, which is dedicated to rational debate (i.e. to debate and discussion which is not ‘interests’, ‘disguised’ or ‘manipulated’) and which is both accessible to entry and open to inspection by the citizenry. It is here, in this public sphere, that public opinion is formed.” (quoted in Holub, 1991: 2-8)
Habermas argued that the ‘bourgeois public sphere’ emerged in an expanding capitalist society exemplified by eighteenth-century Britain, where entrepreneurs were becoming powerful enough to achieve autonomy from state and church and increasingly demanding wider and more effective political representation to facilitate expansion of their businesses. In his formulation of a public sphere, Habermas gave prominence to the role of information, as, at this time, a greater freedom of the press was fought for and achieved with parliamentary reform. The wider availability of printing facilities and the resultant reduction in production costs of newspapers stimulated debate contributing to what Habermas calls ‘rational-acceptable policies’, which led by the mid-nineteenth century to the creation of a ‘bourgeois public sphere’.
This idealized version of a public space was characterized by greater accessibility of information, a more open debate within the bourgeoisie, a space independent of both business interests and state apparatus. However, as capitalism expanded and attained dominance, the call for reform of the state was replaced by an effort to take it over to further business interests. As commercial interests became prominent in politics and started exerting their influence – for example, by lobbying parliament, funding political parties and cultural institutions – the autonomy of the public sphere was severely reduced.
In the twentieth century, the growing power of information management and manipulation through public relations and lobbying firms has contributed to making contemporary debates a ‘faked version’ of a genuine public sphere (Habermas, 1989: 195). In this ‘refeudalization’ of the public sphere, public affairs have become occasions for ‘displays’ of power in the style of medieval feudal courts rather than a space for debate on socioeconomic issues.
Habermas also detects refeudalization in the changes within the mass media systems, which have become monopoly capitalist organizations, promoting capitalist interests, and thus affecting their role as disseminators of information for the public sphere. In a market-driven environment, the overriding concern for media corporations is to produce an artefact which will appeal to the widest possible variety of audiences and thus generate maximum advertising revenue. It is essential, therefore, that the product is diluted in content to meet the lowest common denominator – sex, scandal, celebrity lifestyles, action adventure and sensationalism. Despite their negligible informational quality such media products reinforce the audience’s acceptance of ‘the soft compulsion of constant consumption training’ (Habermas, 1989: 192).
Though the idealized version of the public sphere has been criticized for its very male, Eurocentric and bourgeois limitations, the public sphere provides a useful concept in understanding democratic potential for communication processes (Calhoun, 1992; Dahlgren, 1995). In recent years, with the globalization of the media and communication, there has been talk about the evolution of a ‘global public sphere’ where issues of international significance – environment, human rights, gender and ethnic equality – can be articulated through the mass media, though the validity of such a concept is also contested (Sparks, 1998).

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Critical Theory – International Communication

Among the substantial body of research undertaken by the Frankfurt School theorists, the concept of the ‘culture industry’, first used by Adorno and Horkheimer in a book entitled Dialectic of Enlightenment written in 1944 and published in 1947, has received the widest international attention. Identified with the staff of the Institute for Social Research, founded in 1923 and affiliated with the University of Frankfurt, its key members included Max Horkheimer (1895-1973), Theodor Adorno (1903-69) and Herbert Marcuse (1898-1979).
Analysing the industrial production of cultural goods – films, radio programmes, music and magazines, etc. – as a global movement, they argued that in capitalist societies the trend was towards producing culture as a commodity (Adorno, 1991). Adorno and Horkheimer believed that cultural products manifested the same kind of management practices, technological rationality and organizational schemes as the mass-produced industrial goods such as cars. This ‘assembly-line character’, they argued, could be observed in ‘the synthetic, planned method of turning out its products (factory-like not only in the studio but, more or less, in the compilation of cheap biographies, pseudo-documentary novels, and hit songs)’ (Adorno and Horkheimer, 1979 [1947]: 163).
Such industrial production led to standardization, resulting in a mass culture made up of a series of objects bearing the stamp of the culture industry. This industrially produced and commodified culture, it was argued, led to a deterioration of the philosophical role of culture. Instead, this mediated culture contributed to the incorporation of the working classes into the structures of advanced capitalism and in limiting their horizons to political and economic goals that could be realized within the capitalist system without challenging it. The critical theorists argued that the development of the ‘culture industry’ and its ability to ideologically inoculate the masses against socialist ideas benefited the ruling classes.
Marrying the psychoanalytical theories of Sigmund Freud with Marxian economic analysis, the critical theorists borrowed the notion of commodification from Marx, who had argued that objects are commodified by acquiring an exchange value instead of their intrinsic value. In their analysis of cultural products, they argued that in a capitalist economy cultural products are produced and sold in media markets as commodities and the consumers buy them not just because of their intrinsic worth but in exchange for entertainment or to fulfil their psychological needs.
The concentration of ownership of cultural production in a few producers resulted in a standardized commercial commodity, contributing to what they called a ‘mass culture’ – influenced by the mass media and one which thrived on the market rules of supply and demand. In their view, such a process undermined the critical engagement of masses with important socio-political issues and ensured a politically passive social behaviour and the subordination of the working classes to the ruling elite.
Marcuse, who migrated to the USA where he had a huge influence on the labour movement, argued that technological rationality or instrumental reason had reduced speech and thought to a single dimension, establishing what he called a ‘one-dimensional society’ which had abolished the distance required for critical thought. One of the most incisive chapters of Marcuse’s book One Dimensional Man (1964), discusses ‘one-dimensional language’ and frequently refers to media discourse.
In an international context the idea of ‘mass culture’ and media and cultural industries has influenced debates about the flow of information between countries. The issue of the commodification of culture is present in many analyses of the operation of book publishing, film and popular music industries. One indication of this was the 1982 UNESCO report which argued that cultural industries in the world were greatly influenced by the major media and communication companies and were being continually corporatized. The expansion of mainly Western-based cultural products globally had resulted, it argued, in the gradual ‘marginalisation of cultural messages that do not take the form of goods, primarily of values as marketable commodities’ (UNESCO, 1982: 10).
This emphasis on ownership and control of the means of cultural production and the argument that it directly shapes the activities of artists has been contested by several writers, arguing that creativity and cultural consumption can be independent of production cycles and that the production process itself is not as organised or rigidly standardized as stated by the Frankfurt School theorists.

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Hegemony – International Communication

By arguing that the propaganda model succeeds because there is no significant overt coercion from the state, Herman and Chomsky, in some ways, were following the European analyses of the role of ideology and state power in a capitalist society, articulated by, among others, the French Marxist Louis Althusser who called the media ‘ideological state apparatus’ (1971).
Another major influence on critical theorists as well as on cultural critics in the study of ideology is the writings of Italian Marxist Antonio Gramsci (1891-1937). The impact of the ideas of Gramsci, who died in prison under the Fascist regime, has been widespread in critical studies of international communication. However, it was not until the translation into English of his most famous work, Selections from the Prison Notebooks, in 1971, that Gramsci’s ideas became a major influence in the Anglo-Saxon world.
Gramsci’s conception of hegemony is rooted in the notion that the dominant social group in a society has the capacity to exercise intellectual and moral direction over society at large and to build a new system of social alliances to support its aims. Gramsci argued that military force was not necessarily the best instrument to retain power for the ruling classes, but that a more effective way of wielding power was to build a consent by ideological control of cultural production and distribution.
According to Gramsci, such a system exists when a dominant social class exerts moral and intellectual leadership – through its control of such institutions as schools, religious bodies and the mass media – over both allied and subordinate classes. Social and intellectual authority is exercised by the government ‘with the consent of the governed – but with this consent organised, and not generic and vague’ in such a fashion that its right to govern is rarely challenged seriously. The ‘state does have and request consent but it also “educates” this consent’ (Gramsci, 1971).
One of the most important functions of the state, Gramsci wrote in his Prison Notebooks, ‘is to raise the great mass of the population to a particular cultural and moral level, a level (or type) which corresponds to the needs of the productive forces for development, and hence to the interests of the ruling classes’. Schools, courts and a multitude of ‘initiatives and activities … form the apparatus of the political and cultural hegemony of the ruling classes’ (Gramsci, 1971: 258-9).
This, he argued, was in contrast with a situation in which the dominant class merely rules, that is, coercively imposes its will on subordinate classes. This consent thus manufactured, however, cannot simply be assumed or guaranteed and has to be renewed, indicating that hegemony is more of a process – which is to be continually reproduced, secured and lost – rather than an achieved state of affairs.
In international communication, the notion of hegemony is widely used to conceptualize political functions of the mass media, as a key player in propagating and maintaining the dominant ideology and also to explain the process of media and communication production, with dominant ideology shaping production of news and entertainment (Hallin, 1994). Thus, though the media are notionally free from direct government control, yet they act as agents of legitimization of the dominant ideology.

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