Newsroom automation system is a modern day computer based system designed for easy and speedy news presentation. It is an extremely efficient system, helps the workflow from the news editorial process to live on air production. It offers convenience at every stage of the newscast preparation process and news delivery workflow. News scripts typed on a computer are available to all the newsroom staff, i.e. producers, reporters, editors, chief editor, anchors, right on their desktops. News staff can monitor incoming feeds, perform functions like investing, sorting, displaying wire services, loading, playing of news, video clips, retrieval of store images, and the controlling robotic cameras. Final scripts are available to the teleprompters of cameras to newsreaders/anchors. It greatly improves productivity and efficiency.
The television news coverage is different from covering the news events for radio and press.
Being a visual media almost every TV Reporter leaves the newsroom for news coverage with the camera personal crew who will make sure pictures are taken and sound is recorded. Every Reporter, of course carriers a note pad and pen, for jotting down important facts while covering a story. Such notes make it easier to write a script under deadline pressure in the field or back in the newsroom.
If used properly, television has the potential of bringing about political, economic and socio-cultural change. It can educate most powerfully through its audio-visual capacity. The mimic make the linguistic barrier obsolete. For making this useful, there is a great need for a survey of all the target viewers to know their strength and weaknesses, to learn their needs and prepare programmes accordingly. Unfortunately, this has not yet been done. As such, the potential of television as a medium has remained utilized.
Evaluate the policy of Government of Pakistan about the licensing of private channels in the country, with special reference to PEMRA.
While much of the debate on international communication post-1945 and during the Cold War emphasized a structural analysis of its role in political and economic power relationships, there has been a discernible shift in research emphasis in the 1990s in parallel with the ‘depoliciticization’ of politics towards the cultural dimensions of communication and media. The cultural analysis of communication also has a well established theoretical tradition to draw upon, from Gramsci’s theory of hegemony to the works of the critical theorists of the Frankfurt School. One group of scholars who adapted Gramsci’s notions of hegemony were based at the Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies at the University of Birmingham in Britain. Led by the Caribbean-born scholar Stuart Hall, ‘the Birmingham School’, as it came to be known in the 1970s did pioneering work on exploring the textual analysis of media, especially television, and ethnographic research. Particularly influential was Hall’s model […]
A natural heir to the critical theorists, the German sociologist Jiirgen Habermas (born 1929) also lamented the standardization, massification and atomization of the public. Habermas developed the concept of the public sphere in one of his earliest books, though it was 27 years before it appeared in English translation as The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: “An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society, in 1989. He defined the public sphere as an arena, independent of government (even if in receipt of state funds) and also enjoying autonomy from partisan economic forces, which is dedicated to rational debate (i.e. to debate and discussion which is not ‘interests’, ‘disguised’ or ‘manipulated’) and which is both accessible to entry and open to inspection by the citizenry. It is here, in this public sphere, that public opinion is formed.” (quoted in Holub, 1991: 2-8) Habermas argued that the ‘bourgeois public sphere’ emerged […]
Among the substantial body of research undertaken by the Frankfurt School theorists, the concept of the ‘culture industry’, first used by Adorno and Horkheimer in a book entitled Dialectic of Enlightenment written in 1944 and published in 1947, has received the widest international attention. Identified with the staff of the Institute for Social Research, founded in 1923 and affiliated with the University of Frankfurt, its key members included Max Horkheimer (1895-1973), Theodor Adorno (1903-69) and Herbert Marcuse (1898-1979). Analysing the industrial production of cultural goods – films, radio programmes, music and magazines, etc. – as a global movement, they argued that in capitalist societies the trend was towards producing culture as a commodity (Adorno, 1991). Adorno and Horkheimer believed that cultural products manifested the same kind of management practices, technological rationality and organizational schemes as the mass-produced industrial goods such as cars. This ‘assembly-line character’, they argued, could be observed […]