Analyzing prevailing political situation in Pakistan. How do you see that democracy can prevail and sustain in the country?
It is important for a democracy to have strong institutions and a commitment to the rule of law in order to sustain and thrive. In Pakistan, there have been concerns about the military’s influence on the government and its institutions, as well as allegations of corruption and abuse of power. However, there have also been efforts to strengthen democratic institutions in the country, such as the independence of the judiciary and the free and fair conduct of elections.
For democracy to prevail and sustain in Pakistan, it will be important for the government to address these challenges and work to build strong, independent institutions that can hold those in power accountable. This will require a commitment to the rule of law and transparent, accountable governance, as well as efforts to combat corruption and protect the rights of all citizens. Additionally, it will be important for citizens to actively participate in the democratic process and hold their elected representatives accountable.
There are several factors that can contribute to the sustainability of democracy in a country. These can include:
Strong and independent institutions: Institutions such as a free and fair judiciary, an independent media, and an effective system of checks and balances can help to protect democracy by holding those in power accountable and safeguarding the rights of citizens.
Rule of law: A commitment to the rule of law, which requires that all people, including those in positions of power, are subject to the same laws and legal processes, is essential for democracy.
Transparency and accountability: Governments that are transparent and accountable to their citizens are more likely to be trusted and supported by the public, which can help to sustain democracy.
Political participation: When citizens are able to participate in the democratic process, such as by voting and campaigning for candidates, it can help to strengthen democracy and promote a sense of ownership and responsibility among the public.
Civil society: Active and engaged civil society organizations can help to hold governments accountable and advocate for the needs and rights of citizens, which can support democracy.
What are Probability and Non Probability samples? copiously explain their application in Communication Research
In research, a sample is a subset of a population that is selected for study. Probability sampling is a method of sampling in which every member of the population has a known, non-zero chance of being selected for the sample. This means that the sample is representative of the population and statistical inferences can be made about the population based on the sample. Non-probability sampling is a method of sampling in which the selection of the sample is not based on the principles of probability theory. This means that the sample may not be representative of the population, and statistical inferences cannot be made about the population based on the sample.
Probability sampling is often used in communication research because it allows researchers to make more accurate inferences about the population being studied. For example, if a researcher wants to study the attitudes of a particular group of people towards a particular issue, they might use a probability sample to select a representative group of people from the population being studied. This would allow the researcher to make inferences about the attitudes of the entire population based on the attitudes of the sample.
Non-probability sampling is often used in communication research when it is not possible or practical to use probability sampling. For example, if a researcher wants to study the attitudes of a group of people who are difficult to access, such as celebrities or politicians, they might use a non-probability sample to select a group of people to study. This would allow the researcher to study the attitudes of this group, even though they are not representative of the population as a whole.
Both probability and non-probability sampling have their strengths and limitations, and the choice of which method to use depends on the research question being studied and the resources available to the researcher. It is important for researchers to consider the limitations of their sample when interpreting and generalizing their results.
Scope of Media Studies and mass communication in Pakistan?
Thounsands of students have this query online and question and often wonder if there is any scope for media studies and mass communication study as a best career in Pakistan. The jobs and vacancies for mass communication graduates in Pakistan have been increasing a lot. Numerous private channels either news and entertainment required media and mass communication specialists. However, before choosing a degree program, make sure where your interest lies, many of students are looking confused between journalism, media studies and mass communication.
Definition of Mass Communication is as Mass communication is about the masses (Large number of people or groups). It is collectively the way of highlighting and discussing the groups. This includes cinemas, videos, media channels, and photography. Journalism is more structured and focused more on writings and contents management. Media Studies and mass communication also play vital role in development support communication.
However, the list below shows the type of jobs that are open for media and mass communication graduates in Pakistan:
Salary of Media & Mass Communication Graduates in Pakistan
The job and careers possibilities are endless for those with a degree in mass communications and media studies or who want to get this diploma or degree. It opens a gateway to a number of opportunities. The salary of these field persons range varies as Media businesses or Media industries have different pay range. On average, the salary starts from 40,000/month.
Hence, choosing mass communication as your degree is undoubtedly a good option as the future of mass communication, and the media industry is bright. The media industry constantly looks for talented, hardworking, and skilled professionals. As a mass communications graduate, you will have many career options. Besides, if an individual is persistent in something they are interested in, they will surely achieve positive results.
Finding your path and perfect role in Digital Marketing
As you begin your career, you’ll have to navigate your way to find the perfect role for you. While there is no one way to find your ideal role, there are some things to consider to help you better understand what direction you want to take. This reading will focus on a few of the options to consider as you start to search for a job.
Digital marketing vs. e-commerce
Throughout this program, you learned concepts and practices related to digital marketing and e-commerce. By now, you have probably noticed that there isn’t a distinct divide between the two fields. Digital marketing and e-commerce often work fluidly together to achieve some type of conversion goal. While lots of the concepts you’ve learned relate to both fields, some aspects are different between each field. The table below provides an overview of these differences
Focuses on marketing products and services, using digital platformsFocuses on the development of emails, social media posts, and videos to garner the attention of potential buyers
Focuses on buying and selling products or other online services using the internetFocuses on customer loyalty through rewards programs, Google Ads campaigns, and website maintenance
Neither of the two fields is better than the other. Instead, it’s about determining which field is a better fit for you and what you hope to achieve in your career. Keep in mind the aspects that you enjoyed learning about and those that you did not. Make a list to compare the two if you find it helpful.
As you apply to jobs, you shouldn’t feel forced to choose one field over the other. As an entry- level employee, you’ll more than likely work on tasks in both fields. Once you land a job, you can hone your skills and determine the field you like best.
Generalist vs. specialist
Another category to consider when attempting to find your right path is whether you want to work as a generalist or a specialist. A generalist is knowledgeable about many topics and has various interests, while a specialist is an expert in a specific field.
Generalists have broad, multifaceted roles that allow entry-level employees to gain experience in many different areas related to the field. Alternatively, specialists are focused on a singular aspect of either digital marketing (emails, social media, etc.), or e-commerce (campaigns, loyalty programs, etc.). The table below provides an overview of common generalist and specialist roles.
Common generalist roles
Common specialist roles
Digital marketerContent strategistE-commerce digital strategistDigital marketing strategistMarketing assistant
Social media strategist PPC specialistEmail marketerSEO specialist Social video producer
Please note that the word “specialist” is often used in job titles, even for roles that include generalist-like tasks. When reviewing a job listing, be sure to read the duties and responsibilities assigned to that role so that you have a clear understanding of what you will be doing if hired.
Choose your work environment
Choosing what type of environment works best for you is just as important as the type of role you select. Different types of environments have their own cultures and practices. As an entry-level employee, you’ll come across two types of workplaces: agency or in-house. You can also choose to work for yourself in a freelance role.
Agency vs. in-house teams
In the digital marketing and e-commerce fields, agencies help other businesses perform a specific function related to marketing, campaign development, or design. Agencies can support large or small companies and often work independently from the business they’ve been hired for outside of the determined needs.
As an entry-level employee, you can expect to work for several clients. This is because agencies often take on many different clients. It is common to work with a client for a short time. While doing agency work, it’s unlikely that you will decide on the direction of assignments since those are determined by the company that hired your agency’s services.
Alternatively, companies who create and distribute a product or a service may build an “in-house” team of internal employees to handle their marketing and e-commerce needs. There are many reasons companies choose this option, including reduced costs, full transparency between the team and the larger company, and concern for the privacy of their users and their personal information.
As an entry-level employee, you can expect to work on a team that is relatively smaller than the rest of the company. Unlike working at an agency, many employees on an in-house team have the opportunity to learn a great amount about the company they are performing digital marketing and e-commerce tasks for.
Freelancing is another option for people who want to leverage their experience their role in digital marketing and e-commerce skills. A freelancer is self-employed and not necessarily committed to a particular employer long-term.
Like working in an agency, freelancers can work with multiple clients. However, unlike working at an agency or on an in-house team, freelancers can choose which roles they’d like to accept.
Freelancers are typically generalists. Having multiple skills and knowledge areas allows them to work with many companies since they have expertise in many different areas.
Taking on freelance projects is a good way to develop your skills and take the lead in your work at any point in your career, particularly at the beginning. However, those who want to freelance later in their career should consider gaining company experience at some point to understand the industry better.
How customers view a business is significantly based on their experiences with it and their own personal outcomes. Customer interactions with an online business, whether directly or indirectly, can affect if they choose to return in the future. That’s why it’s important for e-commerce businesses to constantly assess customer satisfaction.
Measuring customer satisfaction involves conducting research to determine the performance of products or services based on how they are perceived by customers. The benefit of measuring customer satisfaction is that it can help a business gain profit and competitive advantage. The following are steps on how to measure customer satisfaction.
1. Define goals
Before a business can begin to measure customer satisfaction, it must define what to improve. There are many steps to a buyer’s experience with an online store, including: selecting the item they want to purchase, the checkout process, and the item delivery. Each of these steps has the potential for something to go wrong, so it’s important to be specific when thinking about what research goal.
In an earlier course, you learned that goals should be specific, measurable, attainable, relevant, and time-bound. Keep this in mind as you develop your goals.
Examples of goals are:
Reduce redundancies and customer friction.
Provide self-service options.
Replace the sales rep with e-commerce customer service agents.
Take customer reviews seriously.
Resolve issues quickly.
Resolve an issue in one interaction.
Ensure customer service representatives are friendly.
Being able to follow-up with the same person if necessary.
Being able to record, print, and save a copy of the interaction.
Follow up with customers afterwards to ensure they’re satisfied.
2. Choose a customer satisfaction survey type
As mentioned previously in a video, there are many types of customer surveys to gain insight to how customers feel about a business. The following are some common types of customer surveys.
Customer Satisfaction (CSAT) Survey
Customer Satisfaction surveys—or CSAT surveys—are used to measure a customer’s satisfaction with products or services. To review the variety of customer satisfaction surveys, check out a previous video on customer survey.
Net Promoter ScoreⓇ (NPS) Survey
Net Promoter Score Surveys are single question surveys that ask respondents to rate the likelihood that they would recommend a company, product, or a service to a friend or colleague on a scale from 0 for not at all likely to 10 for extremely likely. Unlike general CSAT surveys that are intended to measure customer satisfaction with a specific service or brand, NPS surveys are intended to measure the loyalty of customers to a company. The scores are broken into three categories:
Promoters: responders with a score of 9 or 10. They are considered to be enthusiastic about the brand.
Passives: responders with a score of 7 or 8. They are considered satisfied but not as enthusiastic enough to promote the brand.
Detractors: responders with a score of 6 or less. They are considered to be unsatisfied and unlikely to shop with the business again.
To calculate a NPS score, businesses subtract the percentage of detractors from the percentage of promoters.
For example, if 15% are detractors and 60% are promoters, the overall NPS score is 45%.
For e-commerce businesses, most of the purchase is done through the online store.
Usability surveys relate the customers’ satisfaction with the company’s website and identify any problems the customer may experience along their shopping journey.
3. Select a survey medium
Once you’ve selected a survey type, it’s time to select a survey medium. Different mediums can include:
In-app or on-site surveys
Post-service or post-purchase surveys
Long email surveys
Once a business receives customer feedback, they can view how customers feel about their brand, services, or products. They can choose to implement the feedback based on trends in the data collected to make customers more pleased with future shopping experiences.
During special events and holidays, e-commerce stores want an increase in conversion rates (in this case people clicking on your ads) since more people are searching to buy products online. Google Ads allows you to prepare for this by using the Performance Planner.
Performance Planner is a useful tool within Google Ads that allows you to forecast your Search, Display, and Shopping campaign’s performance based on your budget. That means you can predict future outcomes of holiday and special event sales. The planner also addresses seasonality based on your business type and location.
You can review how changes to campaigns might affect overall performance and key metrics such as conversions, conversion value, or clicks.
In addition, using Performance Planner can help you:
Explore outcomes by adjusting campaign settings
Understand opportunities in seasonal periods
Manage budgets across accounts and campaigns
How it works
The Performance Planner tool works by using your campaign history and billions of search queries to create forecasts—or predictions—on how well your campaign will perform. The tool helps you create plans for your advertising budget.
Unlike making Smart Bidding adjustments, Performance Planner relies on existing campaigns. If your campaigns don’t have enough conversions to create a forecast, but they have enough clicks, you can manually enter a conversion rate to assess conversion forecasts.
Requirements to use the Performance Planner Tool for Marketing Planning
To use the the performance planner tool for a standard or Smart Shopping campaign, you must:
Have received at least 100 impressions in the last seven days
Have received at least 10 conversions and/or conversion values within the last 10 days
Have been active each day with a minimum spend of $10 USD or more in the last 10 days
You have learned about using various video advertisement methods online through e-commerce ad platforms. In this reading, we’ll learn about digital advertising, only this time, we’ll cover video ads specifically.
Digital advertising vs digital marketing
Digital marketing is the practice of reaching consumers online through digital channels with the aim of turning them into customers. Digital advertising is the practice of promoting a brand and generating sales through the use of ads. Using video in ads is one effective tactic of digital advertising.
Benefits of digital advertising
Videos are an effective way to advertise for a number of reasons. For starters, 4 billion videos are watched on YouTube everyday. That’s billions of potential opportunities for a video ad to be seen. It’s also estimated that almost one-third of shoppers purchase a product after encountering a video ad, which is a conversion rate of 33% — well over most average ad conversion rates.
There are other benefits, too. A video can deliver more information than a graphic or a photo can. The use of videos can add a personal touch to a brand’s ads, and videos sometimes do a better job of showcasing products than images do. Using ads that include storytelling videos, testimonial videos, or influencer review videos are all great ways to take your brand awareness to the next level.
Types of ads
There are many kinds of ads you can use in digital advertising. By now, you may be familiar with some of them. Using ads on display networks, social media, search engines, or video streaming platforms (like YouTube), can boost a business’ ability to reach potential customers.
There are all kinds of ad-hosting platforms available to digital marketers, and in order to best serve your target audience, you should be familiar with as many as possible. Below are some examples of spaces you can place ads within.
Facebook and Instagram are social media platforms where you can run advertisement that appear in people’s social media feeds or in their stories.
Placing ads on Google Ads will allow them to be seen while people are browsing for similar products.
YouTube Ads, which exist before, in the middle of, and after videos on YouTube, give your brand visibility through their video platform. These ads pop up in the same media player they’re using to watch videos.
This isn’t an exhaustive list — if you want to find additional ad-hosting platforms, you’ll want to do some more research. There are many other platforms for e-commerce ads, but remember that some of them aren’t always well-suited for videos. Where you place your video ads matters.
Setting your strategy
Before you create a video ad, you’ll want to make sure you set your strategy. When you’re setting your advertising strategy, ask yourself: where will these ads be placed? Who is my target audience for these ads? What is my plan if the ads don’t perform well? Will there be one ad or will we create a whole campaign of video ads?
Knowing this information will help you stay on track. As a digital marketer or digital advertising professional, remember that there will always be some level of trial and error. Be prepared to pivot or try new things if your video ads aren’t generating sales or creating brand awareness like you wanted them to.
Tips to optimize digital advertising
After you’ve set your digital advertising strategy and answered the questions above, you can start executing your video advertisement.
When creating video ads, here are some aspects to consider:
Length. Video ads should only run for about 20 to 30 seconds at most. The average viewer isn’t likely to watch for much longer than that. In some cases, your ads may only be a few seconds long. The length of your video will depend on your goals and your intended audience.
Hook. The first 3-5 seconds are where you really catch the attention of your potential customer. Make sure you add content that hooks them right away.
Size and dimensions. Depending on where you plan to run your ads, the size and dimensions of your videos will be different. For instance, ads on IG should be 9×16 or square, whereas ads on YouTube should be 16×9.
Target audience. Create videos your potential customers will like, and place the ads wherever your potential customers are most likely to be, whether that’s on social media, driving by digital billboards, watching videos on YouTube, or somewhere else.
Helpful tools to make video advertisement
There is data that suggests videos these days don’t have to have the highest production value. This is good news if you’re just getting started — you can make video ads from anything!