Framing and Frame Analysis

Framing and Objectivity

Frame Analysis Goffman’s idea about how people use expectations to make sense of everyday life While critical cultural researchers were developing reception analysis during the 1980s, a new approach to audience research was taking shape in the United States. It had its roots in symbolic interaction and social constructionism. As we’ve seen, both argue that the expectations we form about ourselves, other people, and our social world are central to social life. You have probably encountered many terms in this and other textbooks that refer to such expectations—stereotypes, attitudes, typification schemes, and racial or ethnic bias. All these concepts assume that our expectations are socially constructed: Expectations are based on previous experience of some kind, whether derived from a media message or direct personal experience (in other words, we aren’t born with them). Expectations can be quite resistant to change, even when they are contradicted by readily available factual information. […]

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Define Consequentialism and Utilitarianism

Consequentialism and Utilitarianism

One of the principal ethical philosophies is consequentialism, a class of normative ethical theories. This theory can be seen as one of the leading moral perspectives in Western society, and it has dominated media ethics during the last century. As its name suggests, holds that the consequences of one’s conduct are the ultimate basis for any judgment about the rightness or wrongness of that conduct. Thus, from a consequentialist standpoint, a morally right act is one that will produce a good outcome, or consequence. One of the philosophies within – besides several classic variations – is utilitarianism. Utilitarianism is a theory in normative ethics which holds that the best moral action is the one that maximizes utility. Utility in this context is happiness, or pleasure. In short, this is about ‘the greatest good for the greatest number’. By asking what will bring the greatest amount of happiness to the greatest […]

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Differences in Media Ethics and Morals

Media Ethics vs Moral

When discussing communication ethics, it is important to understand exactly what is meant by ‘ethics’. Sometimes, people confuse ethics with behaving in accordance with social conventions, religious beliefs and the law. And, sometimes the terms ethics and morals are used interchangeably, because they clearly are both related to “right” and “wrong” conduct. However, they are not the same thing at all! Ethics refer to rules provided by an external source. They are governed by professional and legal guidelines within a particular time and place. Ethics are all about how we deal with ‘grey areas’. Ethics therefore refer to the value judgments we make on bigger and smaller matters, in communication as well as in other fields. A concrete example of ethics are codes of conduct in workplaces. Lawyers, policemen, and doctors all have to follow an ethical code laid down by their profession, regardless of their own feelings or preferences. […]

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A recent Ethical Dilemma in Media Ethics and Governance

Media Coverage of Religious Agitation on Electronic Media and Print media should be properly and without biasness: Description of the Dilemma In Pakistan Media industry grew up to free and a large number of media houses contributing in news, current affairs and entertainment field, They have liberty to report and critics the government. Recently ,Supreme Court given a verdict on case of Asia BiBi’s Blasphemy case, Its become the hot topic in the public of Pakistan. A group of religious leaders are protesting against this decision of Supreme Court. Supreme Court’s verdict set free Asia BiBi from blasphemy charges , but before this High Court and Session Court found her guilty and sentenced for death. References of News (Evening Standard News BBC News Report: Religious leaders and extremists  were not accepting the verdict and they start agitation and  about whole country struck off due to this protest and even government suspended […]

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Sampling in Scientific Research Method


Sampling Definition:Sampling is the statistical process of selecting a subset (called a “sample”) of a population of interest for purposes of making observations and statistical inferences about that population. Social science research is generally about inferring patterns of behaviors within specific populations. We cannot study entire populations because of feasibility and cost constraints, and hence, we must select a representative sample from the population of interest for observation and analysis. It is extremely important to choose a sample that is truly representative of the population so that the inferences derived from the sample can be generalized back to the population of interest. Improper and biased sampling is the primary reason for often divergent and erroneous inferences reported in opinion polls and exit polls conducted by different polling groups such as CNN/Gallup Poll, ABC, and CBS, prior to every U.S. Presidential elections. The Sampling Process The sampling process comprises of several […]

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Top 40 Potential Ph.D. Viva voce exam Questions.

Top 40 Potential Ph.D. Viva voce exam Questions. 1. Can you start by summarising your thesis? 2. Now, can you summarise it in one sentence? 3. What is the idea that binds your thesis together? 4. What motivated and inspired you to carry out this research? 5. What are the main issues and debates in this subject area? 6. Which of these does your research address? 7. Why is the problem you have tackled worth tackling? 8. Who has had the strongest influence in the development of your subject area in theory and practice? 9. Which are the three most important papers that relate to your thesis? 10. What published work is closest to yours? How is your work different? 11. What do you know about the history of [insert something relevant]? 12. How does your work relate to [insert something relevant]? 13. What are the most recent major developments […]

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