Reliability Measurements in Research Methods

Reliability Reliability is equated with a measuring instrument’s consistency or stability. If the same scale is administered repeatedly to the same individuals and it yields roughly the same set of responses, the scale is said to be reliable. For example, if you and your classmates were to take one of your course examinations several times and the average class grades were approximately the same each time, the test probably a reliable, measure of the class’s mastery of the materials covered by the question. on the examination. However, if the class average varies considerably from one test to another, the examination is probably unreliable. Random error and reliability Unreliable test scores result from random errors of measurement, produced by factors such as fatigue or carelessness. Random errors result responses that do not reflect a person’s “true’ knowledge or beliefs about the concepts beinz measured. Applied to a course examination random errors […]

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Sampling in Scientific Research Method


Sampling Definition:Sampling is the statistical process of selecting a subset (called a “sample”) of a population of interest for purposes of making observations and statistical inferences about that population. Social science research is generally about inferring patterns of behaviors within specific populations. We cannot study entire populations because of feasibility and cost constraints, and hence, we must select a representative sample from the population of interest for observation and analysis. It is extremely important to choose a sample that is truly representative of the population so that the inferences derived from the sample can be generalized back to the population of interest. Improper and biased sampling is the primary reason for often divergent and erroneous inferences reported in opinion polls and exit polls conducted by different polling groups such as CNN/Gallup Poll, ABC, and CBS, prior to every U.S. Presidential elections. The Sampling Process The sampling process comprises of several […]

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Hypothesis in Mass Communication & Media Research Method

Hypothesis in Mass Communication Research Method

Hypothesis: A hypothesis is a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables. A hypothesis is a specific, testable prediction about what you expect to happen in your study. A hypothesis predicts what the researchers expect to see, the goal of the research is to determine whether this guess is right or wrong. When conducting an experiment, researchers might explore a number of factors to determine which ones might contribute to the ultimate outcome. In many cases, researchers may find that the results of an experiment do not support the original hypothesis. When writing up these results, the researchers might suggest other options that should be explored in future studies. There are many ways to come up with a hypothesis. In many cases, researchers might draw a hypothesis from a specific theory or build on previous research. A hypothesis states what we are looking for. When facts are assembled, ordered and seen […]

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Literature Review or What is Review of literature?

Literature Review

Review of literature What is a review of literature? What steps must you take in preparing to write a literature review? Writing the introduction Writing the body Writing the conclusion What is a review of literature? The format of a review of literature may vary from discipline to discipline and from assignment to assignment. A review may be a self-contained unit — an end in itself — or a preface to and rationale for engaging in primary research. A review is a required part of grant and research proposals and often a chapter in theses and dissertations. Generally, the purpose of a review is to analyze critically a segment of a published body of knowledge through summary, classification, and comparison of prior research studies, reviews of literature, and theoretical articles. What steps must you take in preparing to write a literature review? There are a number of steps to undertake […]

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Research , Importance of Research, Aims and Motives

Why Research? Importance of Research. Aims and Motives of social research. What Is Research? Research comprises “creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.” It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories. A research project may also be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects, or the project as a whole. The primary purposes of basic research (as opposed to applied research) are documentation, discovery, interpretation, or the research and development (R&D) of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies, which vary considerably both within and between humanities and sciences. There are several forms of […]

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Post Positivism vs Interpretivist approach

Having invested some more energy concentrate the zones of Positivism and Interpretivist  in the territory of instructive research I have dissected the fundamental contrasts between the two methodologies with the goal that I can figure out where my position may lie. Post Positivism This is generally regarded as a “scientific” approach with methods used that are highly organised, measurable and based on approaches taken by the scientific community involved in researching behaviours in the natural world. The researcher will not be involved with those involved in the research topic and will often use observations as a method of obtaining information. Martyn Denscombe (1998) describes how for positivists, the aim of social research is to discover the patterns and regularities of the social world by using the kind of scientific methods used to such good effect in the natural sciences. Key features: Scientific Objective Robust Involves identifying causes Tests hypotheses Uses the methods of the natural sciences External reality need to collect ‘facts’ Use of statistics (quantitative) […]

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Feminist Approach or Feminist Theory

Feminist theory, or feminism, is support of equality for women and men. Although all feminists strive for gender equality, there are various ways to approach this theory, including liberal feminism, socialist feminism and radical feminism.

Feminist Approach What Is Feminist Theory? Feminist theory, or feminism, is support of equality for women and men. Although all feminists strive for gender equality, there are various ways to approach this theory, including liberal feminism, socialist feminism and radical feminism. Let’s take a look at the basic feminist ideas and various approaches to achieving gender equality. Basic Feminist Ideas Both females and males who identify themselves as feminists disagree on many things. That being said, most feminists agree on five basic principles: Working to increase equality: Feminist thought links ideas to action, insisting we should push for change toward gender equality and not just talk about it. Expanding human choice: Feminists believe that both men and women should have the freedom to develop their human interests and talents, even if those interests and talents conflict with the status quo. For example, if a woman wants to be a mechanic, she […]

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