Media cross-ownership is the ownership of multiple media businesses by a person or corporation. These businesses can include broadcast and cable television, film, radio, newspaper, magazine, book publishing, music, video games, and various online entities. Much of the debate over concentration of media ownership in the Pakistan has for many years focused specifically on the ownership of broadcast stations, cable stations, newspapers and websites. On 12th July 2003, The federal cabinet took a major step to expand and liberalise private ownership of electronic media by approving an amendment in the Pakistan Electronic and Media Regulatory Authority (PEMRA) Ordinance, which will allow cross-media ownership. Ten new channels would get permission under the amended ordinance and Pakistan Television would also start its two new channels, one of which would be for Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJ&K). He said the prime minister noted at the meeting that the plurality of views was the government’s […]
Our description of the eras of mass communication theory begins with a review of some of the earliest thinking about media. These ideas were initially developed in the latter half of the nineteenth century, at a time when rapid development of large factories in urban areas was drawing more and more people from rural areas to cities. At the same time, ever more powerful printing presses allowed the creation of newspapers that could be sold at declining prices to rapidly growing populations of readers. Although some theorists were optimistic about the future that would be created by industrialization, urban expansion, and the rise of print media, many were extremely pessimistic (Brantlinger, 1983). They blamed industrialization for disrupting peaceful, rural communities and forcing people to live in urban areas merely to serve as a convenient workforce in large factories, mines, or bureaucracies. These theorists were fearful of cities because of their […]
Media theory has undergone important transformations over the past two centuries. We have identified four distinct eras in the development of mass communication theories, beginning with the origin of media theory in the nineteenth century and ending with the emergence of an array of contemporary perspectives. As we explore each of these eras, we will describe the various types of mass communication theories that were constructed, consider their objectives, and illustrate both their strengths and their limitations. We will point out the purposes these theories served and the reasons why they were replaced or ignored by later scholars. In some cases, theories were rejected when they couldn’t be validated by scientific research or supported by logical arguments. Empirical evidence contradicted their key notions, or they proved difficult to explain or defend. Occasionally, proponents gave up trying to find evidence to support them or they became irrelevant as media or society […]
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On advancing to arrangement in 1998, the BJP-led affiliation set up a adapted assignment force headed by Shri K.C.Pant, the approachable Deputy Chairman of the Planning Commission, Shri Jaswant Sigh, who served as the Foreign Minister and afterwards Finance Minister of the approachable Government, and Air Commodore Jasjit Singh, the again Director of the Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses (IDSA), to appraise the animate of the civic aegis administration arrangement in the USA, the UK and added countries and to accomplish recommendations on the setting-up of a new civic aegis administration (NSM) infrastructure. ﾠ 2. In December 1998, on the recommendations of this assignment force, a three-tier anatomy was set up, consisting of a Civic Aegis Council (NSC), a Cardinal Activity Group (SPG) and a Civic Aegis Advising Lath (NSAB). The Indian NSC, like its US counterpart, is about a activating political anatomy chaired by the Prime Minister and […]
ﾠ The PFDF is responsible for the growth, development and promotion of Flying Disc / Frisbeesports in Pakistan. Flying Disc Games are fast athletic sports played by men and women in the Play ground, Golf Grounds, at Beach in Pakistan. ﾠ Flying disc sports have traditionally relied upon a spirit of sportsmanship which places the responsibility of fair play on the players themselves. Highly competitive and committed play is encouraged, but never at the expense of the bond of mutual respect between players, adherence to the agreed upon rules of any event, nor the basic enjoyment of play. Protection of these vital elements serves to eliminate adverse conduct from the playing field. The responsibility for the maintenance of this spirit rests on each player’s shoulders.ﾠ For more details to understand It is a high-energy sport that combines the best aspects of sport. ﾠ ﾠ
ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY (Mass Communication Department) Subject: RE-SCHEDULE OF ENTRY TEST/ INTERVIEW FOR M.PHIL MASS COMMUNICATION ADMISSION The Department has re-scheduled test/ interview for admission into M.Phil Mass Communication for semester Autumn, 2014. The revised schedule is as follows: 1.Test (Monday) – 10th November, 2014 at 9:00 A.M Venue of test – AIOU Academic Complex 2.Interview (Tuesday) – 11th & 12th November, 2014 at 9:00 A.M Venue of Interview – of Mass Communication Note: It is pertinent to mention here that only eligible candidates will be allowed to appear in the entry test.