What are different types of print media? Which one is effective most in Pakistani Society?

PRINT MEDIA : Print media includes those media of communication which are controlled by space rather than time. It can be read at any available time and can be kept for record. Following are the major print media of mass communication. a)            Books b)            Newspapers c)            Magazines Books : In the past books was not a mass medium but privilege of the elite class. There were two reasons for that. Firstly, books were not printed but transcribed by hand. Secondly, the low literacy level in the masses limited books exclusively to a small fraction of the society. It was the nineteenth century which saw book as a mass medium. In the contemporary world, book is one of the most effective mass media. It is the best source of education. However, it should not be talent merely as an educational tool., It is the best and cheapest means of storing and […]

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Effects of mass media on society

 Effects of mass media on society Effects of Mass Media can be definedas any change induced directly or indirectly through newspapers, films, radioand television. In the 19th century, the communication experts were of the viewthat access by the mass of population to the printed word might turn docilityinto uprising. The new man medium of cinema was similarly accused of wide rangeof effects while T.V. in the eyes of some is responsible for many of the illsof our time as though such media could be somehow divorced from social,political and cultural environments which produce them. The timing of communication process,writes C.Seymour-Ure in the Political Impact of Mass Media (UK contable, 1974),is probably one of the most important determinants of mass media effects. Ifthe timing is right, the media can often be the arbiter of crisis, by being inthe most prominent position to define it. Because, of the agenda settingtechnique, the media […]

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Media hegemony

Media hegemony

Media hegemony The assumption of media hegemony is that the ideas of the ruling class become ruling ideas in society. According to this approach, the mass media are controlled by the dominant class in society which uses it as a vehicle for exerting control over the rest of society. Media hegemony is rooted in the Marxist economies.They argue that media contents in USA are shaped to suit the interests of the capitalists. While commenting on media hegemony, Adelheid says that it seems to involve at least three assumptions that could be treated with evidence: 1.           The socialization of journalists involves guidelines, work routines and orientations replete with the dominant ideology.   2.           Journalists tend to cover topic and present news reports that are conservative and supportive of the status quo.   3.           Journalists tend to present pro-American and negative coverage of foreign countries, especially Third World nations.   According toWerner […]

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Gate Keeping in Media

Gate Keeping The term gatekeeping was originally used by Kwrt Lewin in his Human Relations (1947) to refer to (1) theprocess by which a message passes through various gates as well as (2) thepeople or groups who allow the message to pass (gatekeepers), may be individualsor a group of persons through whom a message passes from sender to receivers. A camera-person is a vivid example of a gatekeeper, who selects certain area for photographing which are then shown to the viewers. Editors of newspapers,magazines and publishing houses are also gatekeepers as. they allow certain information to get through and filter other information. The selection and rejection ofmaterial is made according to a set of criteria determined by a number of factors such as the gatekeepers, back-ground, education, up-bringing and attitudes to the world plus the values, norms and traditional Wisdom of the organisation for which the gatekeeper works. History and […]

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Normative Theories of mass communication

Explainnormative theories of mass communication. ·        Professionalism, a crusade toclean up the media and make it respectable and credible, followed the era ofyellow journalism; its objective was to eliminate shoddy and irresponsiblecontent.  ·        Media professionals and socialelites used normative theory to answer questions regarding media reform.  Social responsibility is the normative theoryused in the United States. ·        Social responsibility theory The Origins of NormativeTheories of Media Ø Twoopposing viewpoints o  Radical libertarians (FirstAmendment absolutists) & Technocratic Control § First Amendment absolutiststake the idea of “free press” as literal and oppose government regulation. § Technocrats do not trust themedia and believes in the use of regulators to act in the publicinterest.  o  Propaganda and mass societytheories are used to justify media regulation.  Normative theory: The type of theory that describes an ideal way for media systemsto be structured and operated. Normative theories: 1. Authoritarian theory The theory that places all forms of communication under thecontrol of governing elites […]

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types of communication and its effects

Elaborate with example the various types of communication and its effects in various situations. Communication Communication is a process of exchanging information, ideas, thoughts, feelings and emotions through speech, signals, writing, or behavior. In communication process, a sender(encoder) encodes a message and then using a medium/channel sends it to the receiver (decoder) who decodes the message and after processing information, sends back appropriate feedback/reply using a medium/channel. TYPES OF COMMUNICATION There are five types of communication 1.                  Interpersonal Communication Communication that takes place within himself or herself is called intrapersonal communication. Conversation with self and planning or thinking about the schedule of your study for an examination etc. are the examples of intrapersonal communication. 2.                  Interpersonal Communication It is the process in which communication takes place between two or a small group of persons. Interpersonal communication always takes place into a face to face situation and the communicator and destination […]

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