judiciary organization, function and power

Explain judiciary and the rule of law, organization of judiciary, its function and power. The Judiciary: Judiciary is the third organ of the government which is responsible for the administration of justice according, to the law of the .land enacted by the executive and made by the legislature. The concept of the welfare state is directly linked with social justice with impartiality and expeditiousness. An efficient judiciary is necessary for a good governance as it protects the individual rights of people in their public life. An efficient administration of justice maximizes the responsibility of a citizen in a state. It there is no effective judicial system, then there will he no law at all and the principle of “Might is right” will prevail. Severity of punishment does not but certainty of punishment does compel the offenders to abide by law. In ancient times, the executive and judicial function were combined […]

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Salient Feature of the 1973 Constitution of Pakistan

Salient Feature of the 1973 Constitution of Pakistan

Discuss the salient features of the 1973 Constitution of Pakistan. Salient Feature of the 1973 Constitution of Pakistan: The present Constitution is the third constitution of the country which was drafted and passed by the National Assembly of Pakistan on April 10, 1973. It was authenticated by the president on April 12, 1973 and enforced on August 14, 1973. Following are the main characteristics of this constitution. 1)    A Written Constitution The Constitution of 1973 is written with a preamble, 280 Article, 6 Schedules and a few Amendments. Political Usage’s and Traditions are yet to emerge and develop side by side with the constitution of Pakistan. 2)    Flexibility The Constitution is neither too rigid like the American Constitution nor too flexible like the British Constitution. It can he amended if 2/3 majority of the total strength of the National Assembly approves an amendment in it and when the same is […]

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Types and Examples of Collective Behaviour

Collective Behaviour

What is collective behaviour? Discuss different types and examples of collective behaviour. Also narrate theoretical approaches to the study of collective behaviour. Collective Behaviour: Collective behaviour has been generally applied to these events and refers to group behaviour which originates spontaneously, is entirely unorganized, fairly unpredictable and planless in course of development, and which depends on interstimulation among participants. Examples of collective behaviour include panics, revolutions, riots, lynching, manias, crazes, and fads. Traditional approaches to the study of collective behaviour have emphasized the importance of emotion, suggestibility and irrationality in the understanding of collective episodes. Types and Examples of Collective Behaviour The term collective behaviour has been applied to a broad range of group activities ranging from a rather spontaneous and short lived actions of a crowd to the more organized, structured and long-term experiences of a major social movement. –                   The Crowd We attend the theatre and game events […]

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Attitude and Behaviour

Differentiate between attitude and behaviour. How do the characteristics of Source, message and audience affect the attitude making?   Attitudes and Behaviour: Social scientists have debated the relationships between attitudes and behaviour –attitude as predictor of behaviour. Two studies of Richard Lapiere and Kutner et al indicated a lack of correspondence between actual behaviour and the behaviour th; respondents verbally indicated that they would take. A careful review of the research from 1930 to 1969 led to the conclusion that attitude accounts for about to percent I variability in behaviour. Warner and DeFleur have noted that the debate has resulted i three distinct views. The first is the postulate of consistency. It is based on the assumption that attitude can be used as reasonably valid guides for prediction of the behaviour. The second is the postulate of independent variation. It claims that there is no valid reason to assume that […]

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Norms, Conformity & Social Learning Approach

Norms, Conformity & Social Learning Approach

Write a comprehensive note on the following:                                 i)     Norms          ii)    Conformity     iii)   Social Learning Approach   i)             Norms Wrightman has proposed that conscience operates, when each individual is working on his or her own, but when the person functions in “organizational mode” one’s individual conscience is no longer relevant. Such persons are operating in an agential state, or a condition in which the person sees himself or herself as an agent for carrying out another person’s wishes, in contrast to a state of autonomy, or acting on one’s own. According to social-psychological research, the presence of others, “whether in immediate sense or in the actor’s psychological definition of the situation” (Warner and DeFleur, 1969), exerts influence on the individual to act in a manner that is consistent with what those others are perceived to feel is appropriate and desirable conduct. According to this research it was noted that behaviour […]

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Socialization & Theories of the Process of Socialization

Socialization & Theories of the Process of Socialization

Elaborate the process of Socialization. Also comment on major theories of the process of Socialization. Socialization: –                  Definition Socialization has Traditionally been the study of the process by which a human organism becomes a social being concerned with the rights and duties of self and others, with ethical and unethical behaviour, and so on. Socialization is the process of social interaction through which people acquire personality and learn the way of life of their society. Socialization is the essential link between the individual and society- a link so vital that neither individual nor society could survive without it. It enables the individual to learn the norms, values, language, skills, beliefs, and other patterns of thought and action that are essential for social living. And it enables the society to reproduce itself socially as well as biologically, thus ensuring its continuity from generation to generation. One of the most important outcomes […]

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Social Psychology and Major Social Psychological Theories

major Social psychological theories

Define Social Psychology. Also explain major Social psychological theories. Social Psychology: According to psychologist Gordon Allport, social psychology is a discipline that uses scientific methods “to understand and explain how the thought, feeling and behavior of individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined or implied presence of other human beings” (1985). Social psychology looks at a wide range of social topics, including group behavior, social perception, leadership, nonverbal behavior, conformity, aggression and prejudice. It is important to note that social psychology is not just about looking at social influences. Social perception and social interaction are also vital to understanding social behavior. Major Social Psychological Theories: 1.   Psychoanalytic Theory Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) is the founder of psychoanalytic theory. This theory assumes that every person has a given amount of vital psychic or mental energy called libido energy. The libido, the source of this psychic energy and the various channels through which […]

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