Effects of mass media on society

 Effects of mass media on society
Effects of Mass Media can be definedas any change induced directly or indirectly through newspapers, films, radioand television. In the 19th century, the communication experts were of the viewthat access by the mass of population to the printed word might turn docilityinto uprising. The new man medium of cinema was similarly accused of wide rangeof effects while T.V. in the eyes of some is responsible for many of the illsof our time as though such media could be somehow divorced from social,political and cultural environments which produce them.
The timing of communication process,writes C.Seymour-Ure in the Political Impact of Mass Media (UK contable, 1974),is probably one of the most important determinants of mass media effects. Ifthe timing is right, the media can often be the arbiter of crisis, by being inthe most prominent position to define it. Because, of the agenda settingtechnique, the media may influence public opinion by determining the priorityand importance and less importance of an issue by its own criteria.
According to James Watson and AnneHill hypotheses about effects : “A few generalized hypothesis aboutaffects can be tentatively posited : the media are probably more likely tomodify and reinforce attitudes than change them; Media impact will be greateramong the uncommitted than the committed; impact will be greater if all themedia are saying more or less the same thing at the same time (Consistency) ;equally if the media are concentrating on a small rather than diverse number ofstories (Intensity) and if they are repeating messages, images, viewpoints overand over again (Frequency).”
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Media Hegemony

Media Hegemony

The assumption of media hegemony is that the ideas of the ruling class become ruling ideas in society. According to this approach, the mass media are controlled by the dominant class in society which uses it as a vehicle for exerting control over the rest of society. Media hegemony is rooted in the Marxist economies.They argue that media contents in USA are shaped to suit the interests of the capitalists. While commenting on media hegemony, Adelheid says that it seems to involve at least three assumptions that could be treated with evidence:

  1. The socialization of journalists involves guidelines, work routines and orientations replete with the dominant ideology.
  2. Journalists tend to cover topic and present news reports that are conservative and supportive of the status quo.
  3. Journalists tend to present pro-American and negative coverage of foreign countries, especially Third World nations.

According toWerner J. Severin and James W. Tankard Jr., Adelheid argues that evidence can be found to cast doubt on each of these propositions. In  connection with proposition, Altheide cites studies showing that foreign affairs reporters take very different approaches while covering detente, depending on their individual backgrounds. In addition, other studies of journalists, backgrounds and attitudes show considerable diversity rather than homogeneity
As regards proposition , Altheidecites numerous examples, including but not limited to Watergate, in which the reporting done by journalists did not support the status quo. A study of press coverage of the 1971 Indian-Pakistan War (Becker, 1977) provides another example when the U.S. government shifted its policy to support for West Pakistan, the news coverage by the New-York Times actually shifted the other way.

So far as proposition 3 is concerned , surveys of journalists indicate that they tend to agree with the Third World position on many issues. Furthermore, research on television coverage of Nicarague during the Sandinista revolt showed that television presented the rebel case repeatedly and in some detail not exactly the kind of content that supports the status quo.
Two researchers who attempted to find studies testing the media hegemony idea found only three )Shoemaker and Myfield, 1984). Two supported the media hegemony idea while one did not.

Finally, if the mass media are in general giving support,to the status quo and corporate values, someone should inform Senator Jesse Helms, and his Fairness in Media group, of this fact.Senator Helms has been involved in efforts to buy the CBS television network because he thinks CBS News is too liberal.

The existence of fairness in media may be one of the best arguments that the mass media are ideologically neutral, since they are criticized by the left for presenting a conservative point of view and by the right for presenting a liberal point of view.

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Gate Keeping in Media

Gate Keeping

The term gatekeeping was originally used by Kwrt Lewin in his Human Relations (1947) to refer to (1) theprocess by which a message passes through various gates as well as (2) thepeople or groups who allow the message to pass (gatekeepers), may be individualsor a group of persons through whom a message passes from sender to receivers. A camera-person is a vivid example of a gatekeeper, who selects certain area for photographing which are then shown to the viewers. Editors of newspapers,magazines and publishing houses are also gatekeepers as. they allow certain information to get through and filter other information.
The selection and rejection ofmaterial is made according to a set of criteria determined by a number of factors such as the gatekeepers, back-ground, education, up-bringing and attitudes to the world plus the values, norms and traditional Wisdom of the organisation for which the gatekeeper works.
History and Orientation
Kurt Lewin was apparently the first one to use the term”gatekeeping,” which he used to describe a wife or mother as the person who decides which foods end up on the family’s dinner table. (Lewin,1947). The gatekeeper is the person who decides what shall pass through eachgate section, of which, in any process, there are several. Although he appliedit originally to the food chain, he then added that the gating process caninclude a news item winding through communication channels in a group. This isthe point from which most gatekeeper studies in communication are launched.White (1961) was the person who seized upon Lewin’s comments and turned itsolidly toward journalism in 1950. In the 1970s McCombs and Shaw took a different direction when they looked at the effects of gatekeepers’ decisions.They found the audience learns how much importance to attach to a news itemfrom the emphasis the media place on it. McCombs and Shaw pointed out that thegatekeeping concept is related to the newer concept, agenda-setting. (McCombset al, 1976). The gatekeeper concept is now 50 years old and has slipped intothe language of many disciplines, including gatekeeping in organizations.
  Core Assumptions and Statements
The gatekeeper decides which information will go forward, andwhich will not. In other words a gatekeeper in a social system decides which ofa certain commodity – materials, goods, and information – may enter the system.Important to realize is that gatekeepers are able to control the public’sknowledge of the actual events by letting some stories pass through the systembut keeping others out. Gatekeepers can also be seen as institutions ororganizations. In a political system there are gatekeepers, individuals orinstitutions which control access to positions of power and regulate the flowof information and political influence. Gatekeepers exist in many jobs, andtheir choices hold the potential to color mental pictures that are subsequentlycreated in people understands of what is happening in the world around them.Media gatekeeping showed that decision making is based on principles of newsvalues, organizational routines, input structure and common sense. Gatekeepingis vital in communication planning and almost all communication planning rolesinclude some aspect of gatekeeping.
The gatekeeper’s choices are a complex web of influences,preferences, motives and common values. Gatekeeping is inevitable and in somecircumstances it can be useful. Gatekeeping can also be dangerous, since it canlead to an abuse of power by deciding what information to discard and what tolet pass. Nevertheless, gatekeeping is often a routine, guided by some set ofstandard questions.
Conceptual Model
Source: White (1964)
Related to gatekeeping in media. For gatekeeping inorganizations this model is not recommended.
Favorite Methods
Interviews, surveys, networkanalysis.
Scope and Application
This theory is related to the mass media and organizations. Inthe mass media the focus is on the organizational structure of newsrooms andevents. Gatekeeping is also an important in organizations, since employees andmanagement are using ways of influence.
Example
A wire service editor decides alone what news audiences willreceive from another continent. The idea is that if the gatekeeper’s selectionsare biased, the readers’ understanding will therefore be a little biased.
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Normative Theories of mass communication

Explainnormative theories of mass communication.

·        Professionalism, a crusade toclean up the media and make it respectable and credible, followed the era ofyellow journalism; its objective was to eliminate shoddy and irresponsiblecontent. 

·        Media professionals and socialelites used normative theory to answer questions regarding media reform.  Social responsibility is the normative theoryused in the United States.

·        Social responsibility theory

The Origins of NormativeTheories of Media

Ø Twoopposing viewpoints

o  Radical libertarians (FirstAmendment absolutists) & Technocratic Control

§ First Amendment absolutiststake the idea of “free press” as literal and oppose government regulation.

§ Technocrats do not trust themedia and believes in the use of regulators to act in the publicinterest. 

o  Propaganda and mass societytheories are used to justify media regulation. 

Normative theory:

The type of theory that describes an ideal way for media systemsto be structured and operated.

Normative theories:

1. Authoritarian theory

The theory that places all forms of communication under thecontrol of governing elites or authorities. Under this theory , the intellectof a common is greatly undermined. Criticism on ruling elites is not tolerated.Many steps are taken to curb the freedom of press like licensing, censorships,approval of content prior to publication and punishments etc.

2. Libertarian theory

The Origin of LibertarianThought

·        Libertarian theory opposesauthoritarian theory, which requires all forms of communication to submit togoverning elites.

·        If freed from authoritarian ruleindividuals would “naturally” follow their conscience, seek truth, engage inpublic debate, and create better life for themselves and others.

·        John Milton asserted in fairdebate good and truthful arguments would always win out over lies and deceit,the self-righting principle. The self-righting principle is fundamental withinsocial responsibility theory.

·        The founding fathers alsosubscribed to liberal thought.

·        Three fundamental conceptsunderpinning the founders’ belief in press freedom:

o  Theology

o  Individual rights

o  Attainment of truth

o  At the nation’s founding, the USwas one of the first nations to adopt Libertarian principles lined out in theDeclaration of Independence and Bill of Rights.

o  Restrictions on communication:

§  Libel

§  GagOrders

§  Regulationsprohibiting false advertising, child pornography, and offensive language.

§  Lawshave been written to restrict communication freedom so that other seemingly equallyimportant rights might be guaranteed.

On the other extreme, there is libertarian theory, whichconsiders that people are rational and have the right to all angles of an issueto decide between truth and falsehood. The government cannot interfere in mattersof press.

3. Social responsibility theory

Press has a right to criticize the government and otherinstitutions but it also has  a responsibility to preserve democracy byproperly informing the public. The press is not free to do as it wills, it isobligated to respond to society’s needs. he government may involve itself inmedia operations by issuing regulations (e.g. Pemra), if public interest is notbeing adequately addressed.

·        The first major test of socialresponsibility theory occurred during the 1950s with the rise of anti-communistsentiments at the time of the Cold War.

·        Joseph McCarthy successfullyused propaganda techniques to draw national attention to himself and tostimulate widespread public hatred and suspicion of people whom he linked, mostoften inaccurately, to communism.

o  This illustrates how difficultit can be for journalists to adhere to social responsibility theory in crisissituations.

o  
Social Responsibility Theory

Oncejournalists began to doubt McCarthy, his popularity was so great that it wasrisky to oppose him.

                          Strengths

1.     Values media responsibility

2.     Values audience responsibility

3.     Limits government intrusion in media operation

4.     Allows reasonable government control of media

5.     Values diversity and pluralism

6.     Aids the “powerless”

7.     Appeals to the best instincts of media practitioners and audiences

8.     Is consistent with US legal tradition

Weaknesses

1.      Is overly optimistic about media’s willingness to meet responsibilities

2.      Is overly optimistic about individual responsibility

3.      Underestimates power of profit motivation and competition

4.      Legitimizes status quo

 


4. Communist Theory

It promotes communism and strives to achieve goals set by thecommunist party. Media is owned by the representatives of the communist state.It works best in a closed society where information is tightly controlled bythe government.

5. Developmental theory

Government mobilizes media to serve national goals in economicand social development. Information is considered a natural resource and mustbe carefully manipulated to achieve national goals for literacy, economicself-sufficiency etc.It is considered that media should support the governmentuntil society is well developed.

Other Normative Theories

}  Developmentalmedia theory: A normative theory calling for government and media to work inpartnership to ensure that media assist in the planned beneficial developmentof the country

}  Democratic-participanttheory: A normative theory advocating media support for cultural pluralism at agrassroots level

}  Western concept:A normative theory combining aspects of Libertarianism and socialresponsibility theory

}  Developmentconcept: A normative theory describing systems in which government and mediawork in concert to ensure that the media aid the planned, beneficialdevelopment of a given nation

}  Revolutionaryconcept: A normative theory describing a system in which media are used in theservice of revolution

}  Authoritarianconcept: A normative theory advocating the complete domination of media by agovernment for the purpose of forcing those media to serve the government

}  Communismconcept: A normative theory advocating the complete domination of media by aCommunist government for the purpose of forcing those media to serve theCommunist Party

}  Transitionalmedia approach: A less category based, more flexible approach to evaluatingmedia systems than traditional normative theory

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types of communication and its effects

Elaborate with example the various types of communication and its effects in various situations.
Communication is a process of exchanging information, ideas, thoughts, feelings and emotions through speech, signals, writing, or behavior. In communication process, a sender(encoder) encodes a message and then using a medium/channel sends it to the receiver (decoder) who decodes the message and after processing information, sends back appropriate feedback/reply using a medium/channel.
TYPES OF COMMUNICATION
There are five types of communication
Communication that takes place within himself or herself is called intrapersonal communication. Conversation with self and planning or thinking about the schedule of your study for an examination etc. are the examples of intrapersonal communication.
It is the process in which communication takes place between two or a small group of persons. Interpersonal communication always takes place into a face to face situation and the communicator and destination are known to each other.
This is most effective form of communication, mainly because the feedback is instant in this situation. Speech of a political leader in a big stadium is the best example of macro group communication. It usually takes place through microphone and the element of feedback is workable in this type of communication. For example the receiver (public) cans instantly feedback in the shape of applauding to the politician or by hooting his speech.
Mass communication is the one in which the message is sent simultaneously to a greater number of people through a mass medium like radio, T.V or newspaper. The receivers of the Mass Communication are separated, heterogeneous and unknown to each other as well as to the communicator. The process of feedback in this type of communication is mostly slow and delayed.
It is the one which has some characteristics of interpersonal communication, and some of mass communication. In Media communication, the message is transmitted through television, telephone etc.
Human Communication
People communicate with each other in a number of ways that depend upon the message and its context in which it is being sent. Choice of communication channel and your style of communicating also affects communication. So, there are variety of types of communication.
Types of communication based on the communication channels used are:
1.      Verbal Communication
2.      Nonverbal Communication
1.      Verbal Communication
Verbal communication refers to the the form of communication in which message is transmitted verbally; communication is done by word of mouth and a piece of writing. Objective of every communication is to have people understand what we are trying to convey. In verbal communication remember the acronym KISS(keep it short and simple).
When we talk to others, we assume that others understand what we are saying because we know what we are saying. But this is not the case. usually people bring their own attitude, perception, emotions and thoughts about the topic and hence creates barrier in delivering the right meaning.
So in order to deliver the right message, you must put yourself on the other side of the table and think from your receiver’s point of view. Would he understand the message? how it would sound on the other side of the table?
Verbal Communication is further divided into:
§  Oral Communication
§  Written Communication
Oral Communication
In oral communication, Spoken words are used. It includes face-to-face conversations, speech, telephonic conversation, video, radio, television, voice over internet. In oral communication, communication is influence by pitch, volume, speed and clarity of speaking.
Advantages of Oral communication are:
It brings quick feedback.
In a face-to-face conversation, by reading facial expression and body language one can guess whether he/she should trust what’s being said or not.
Disadvantage of oral communication
In face-to-face discussion, user is unable to deeply think about what he is delivering, so this can be counted as a
Written Communication
In written communication, written signs or symbols are used to communicate. A written message may be printed or hand written. In written communication message can be transmitted via email, letter, report, memo etc. Message, in written communication, is influenced by the vocabulary & grammar used, writing style, precision and clarity of the language used.
Written Communication is most common form of communication being used in business. So, it is considered core among business skills.
Memos, reports, bulletins, job descriptions, employee manuals, and electronic mail are the types of written communication used for internal communication. For communicating with external environment in writing, electronic mail, Internet Web sites, letters, proposals, telegrams, faxes, postcards, contracts, advertisements, brochures, and news releases are used.
Advantages of written communication includes:
Messages can be edited and revised many time before it is actually sent.
Written communication provides record for every message sent and can be saved for later study.
A written message enables receiver to fully understand it and send appropriate feedback.
Disadvantages of written communication includes:
Unlike oral communication, Written communication doesn’t bring instant feedback.
It takes more time in composing a written message as compared to word-of-mouth. and number of people struggles for writing ability.
2.      Nonverbal Communication
Nonverbal communication is the sending or receiving of wordless messages. We can say that communication other than oral and written, such as gesturebody language, posturetone of voice or facial expressions, is called nonverbal communication. Nonverbal communication is all about the body language of speaker.
Nonverbal communication helps receiver in interpreting the message received. Often, nonverbal signals reflect the situation more accurately than verbal messages. Sometimes nonverbal response contradicts verbal communication and hence affects the effectiveness of message.
Nonverbal communication has the following three elements:
Appearance
Speaker: clothing, hairstyle, neatness, use of cosmetics
Surrounding: room size, lighting, decorations, furnishings
Body Language
facial expressions, gestures, postures
Sounds
Voice Tone, Volume, Speech rate
Types of Communication Based on Purpose and Style
Based on style and purpose, there are two main categories of communication and they both bears their own characteristics. Communication types based on style and purpose are:
1.      Formal Communication
2.      Informal Communication
1.      Formal Communication
In formal communication, certain rules, conventions and principles are followed while communicating message. Formal communication occurs in formal and official style. Usually professional settings, corporate meetings, conferences undergoes in formal pattern.
In formal communication, use of slang and foul language is avoided and correct pronunciation is required. Authority lines are needed to be followed in formal communication.
2.      Informal Communication
Informal communication is done using channels that are in contrast with formal communication channels. It’s just a casual talk. It is established for societal affiliations of members in an organization and face-to-face discussions. It happens among friends and family. In informal communication use of slang words, foul language is not restricted. Usually. informal communication is done orally and using gestures.
Informal communication, Unlike formal communication, doesn’t follow authority lines. In an organization, it helps in finding out staff grievances as people express more when talking informally. Informal communication helps in building relationships.
Communication generally and mass communication in particular has a great deal to serve a diversity of purposes human beings have always wished to achieve. The strong effects of striving to achieve purposes of human communication are visible and helped bring harmony of living in a number of ways. Here we will see how the process of communication at different scales has helped people of different societies to benefit from exchanging views (messages) on subjects of their interest. First we will see to what effect the communication stands for.
EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION
Communication experts have figured out some techniques for effective communication:
Effective Message
The message needs to be designed in such a way that the receiver receives the same what the sender wants to communicate. It is only possible when:
1.           The message is written in the easiest language.
2.            Sentence of the message is short and simple.
3.            Avoid jaw breaking and tongue twisting words.
4.            The message is designed according to the mental level of targeted receiver or audiences.
5.            Select only those words or signs which are common to the field of experience of both the communicator and receiver.
Selection of suitable medium
Medium plays a vital role in making the communication effective. Following are the key points:
1.    Select the medium for which the receivers can have an easy access.
2.    They can buy it easily.
3.    It can communicate in the language of the target destination.
Receiver Attention
Communication should be made at such time that it can gain the attention of the receiver.
Example: – It would be an effective communication when the intended receiver is quite relaxed or waiting for such communication.
Social Value
The message of the communication will be effective if it is composed according to the social values of the given society. For example :- If there is an advertisement about the publicity of vine in a society like Pakistan, people will react to it and thus the communication would be useless. But if the same communication is designed for the British society it will then be an effective communication. So, for an effective communication it is necessary to consider the norms, customs, traditions and religious philosophy of the society.
Communication and Mental Harmony :
The success and failure of communication greatly depends upon the fact that whether it has harmony with the mental level of the receiver or not. For example
You intend to produce a T.V programme for the children of 8 years on a religious topic. The format of the programme Is table discussion. According to my assessment it will be a failure programme and boring for the children because it is difficult for an 8 years child to get meaning from the discussion.

Discover
The immediate effect of communication is to discover something – from an individual to an idea to physical exploration – as a consequence of generating a message. For centuries human beings have been striving to explore the world around them. Nothing more has helped them in this quest than the communication. It is usually the answer to a communication which brings in certain effects of discovery. Even to day when two people meet the communication starts from here; my name is Sara and what is yours? Or, I live in Karachi and (where do) you (live)? It is an instinct of human nature to discover matters around him or her. The process of communication over the centuries has helped tremendously to mankind explore the world around and develop a civilization.
Relationship
Next to discovering, the most important effect of communication is to create relationship with people and things around. A piece of communication is always targeted towards other people with whom you want to have a relationship, or with whom a relationship – of friendship or enmity – already exist. Usually the effect of communication is that a new relationship is set or a fresh dimension, which may be strengthening an existing relationship, is given. And this phenomenon is not confined to individuals. Nations have been seen striving to use the tool of communication to bring this effect. High level diplomats and even heads of states are seen engaged in fresh communication with their counterparts from societies with whom little association has been witnessed in the past.
The mass communication has always worked strongly to fetch this effect to societies living a distance apart from each other.
Historically, many a travelers roamed about the world even when traveling facilities had been scant, to communicate and establish relationship. In many cases an effort by a small group of travelers had helped set up long lasting relationships between people of two societies.
Helping Out Others
Hallmark of communication effects has been the human effort to provide assistance to other fellow beings. It is due to communication from one part of the world to another that the suffering humanity is saved from various disasters. At a lower scale as well, a piece of communication works miracle to save lives of many. Think of a situation when a house catches fire and a family is trapped inside. One call to rescue operation team – a piece of communication, I will say – activates so much movement of rescuers that in most cases many lives are saved from what could have been a major catastrophe. Hurricanes, excessive rains, earthquakes, epidemics and floods are but everyday occurring around the globe but almost in every tragedy no sooner a communication is made, help starts pouring in from all around.
Stimulation
Stimulation, or persuasion, is another effect caused on human beings by communication. An advice from a teacher may effect into activating students to work more seriously, or conduct research on a given topic. At mass level, an appeal from a cherished leader to donate blood or to draw certain measures may do a magic. For instance in the wake of soaring sugar prices if an appeal – a communication- is made from a leader asking people to reduce use of the sweetener may work more than other administrative measures and the price may start falling due to low demand.
It is commonly observed that an organized and well thought after piece of communication causes a great deal of persuasion on matters of common interest.
Relaxation
Among effects of communication one huge area is the relief which is effective when an exchange of ideas or even receiving of messages is done in common life. It is a frequent sightseeing people telling jokes to ward off their worries. Watching a humorous TV play
when one is tense does substantially well to change the mood and lessen the anxiety level. Similarly, watching a tense match and seeing your favorite team winning eventually relaxes you to a large extent. The effect of communication in relaxing people is also observed in meta-communication in which one is involved with nonliving things as well.
Social Growth
Growth of social values, physical structures and increase in the overall intellectual level of a society are result of the net effect it receives from the everyday communication.
The exchange of message on scores of issues commonly shared by the people living in one society always lead to organizing people in a better way. The coherence in living style gives a sort of strength to people of one community which distinguishes it from others. Likewise, sharing of economic knowledge by the people of same society is the effect of common swapping of expertise which some people have gained by their individual efforts.
The present campaign of globalization and all the debate originating from it is a clear effect of the communication which has been taking place on this subject over the decades. It is a matter of common sense that the new approach of one village is going to benefit almost all the people who excel in any field of life. Again, it is a piece of communication which will make people in the same village to come to know how they can benefit from the expertise of others.

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Explain physical and psychological hurdles of communication?

Barrier/ Hurdle:
   Barrier means all those hurdles which stop or interrupt the process of communication. Barrier sometimes becomes so strong that they can even make the whole process just a failure.
Hurdles of Communication:
Physical barrier is a problem in the way of transmitting a message from its source to destination. You sent a letter to your friend but he didn’t get it, this is a physical barrier; there is a speech of President on TV but you can’t listen it properly due to some problem in the transmission (channel noise), also a physical hurdle. If a student closes a door with noise during lecture then it would also be a physical hurdle.
Transmitting a message from one person to another is a tough job because there is a possibility of misunderstanding. There is very little chance that the reader will understand exactly the same what the writer means.
Reality is too difficult to be described by words. Denial Katz expresses that the real world is more complex, more colourful, more multi dimensional than the pale words or over simplified signs to convey meaning. There are two types of hurdles of communication:
1.         Physical hurdles
2.         Psychological hurdles.
Physical Hurdles:
Physical hurdles are a problem in -the way of transmitting a message from its source to destination. You sent a letter to your friend but he did not get it, this is a physical problem ; there is a speech of the president on PTV but you cannot listen it clearly due to some problem in the transmission, we could term this as channel noise.
If somebody closes the door with noise during the course of listening to TV it may also be called a physical hurdle.
When someone speaks slowly and you cannot understand, you are talking to a friend on telephone and there is a noise of horn which can destroy the meaning of the message. All these troubles are in other words called channel noise.
How to overcome channel noise?
The professional communication can overcome channel noise by applying redundancy techniques, i.e. repetition of the main idea of the message. The purpose of this technique is to make sure that the part of the message lost during interruption is communicated again.
Psychological Hurdles:
Psychological hurdles are the kind of hurdles in which the destination receives the message clearly but reacts to the message. This is a great hurdle in the process of communication. Following are the various psychological hurdles.
Different Psychological Hurdles
Ø  Semantic Noise
Ø  Field of Experience
Ø  Cognitive Dissonance
Ø  Frame of Reference
Ø  Poor Understanding
Ø  Expression
Ø  Change in Custom & Tradition
i.          Semantic Noise
This kind of hurdle is the result of using very difficult, jaw breaking and tongue twisting words by the communicator, which are outside the frame of references of audience. Semantic noise can be reduced, if the communicator defines such term and adjusts vocabulary for the interest of the audience.
ii.           Field of Experience
This psychological hurdle occurs when the field of experience is not common to both i.e. communicator and receiver; the communication would not take place. For example, if a scientist wants to communicate the Newton law to the uneducated people, definitely, there won’t be any communication. But if the same message is delivered to the science students, the message will be an effective one. Thus field of experience becomes one of the great hurdles if it is not common to both source and destination.
iii.          Cognitive Dissonance
Cognitive dissonance is also one of the hurdles in the process of communication. By cognitive dissonance, we mean that when a communicator wants to deliver a message to the audience that smoking is injurious to health. The audience does not accept this proposal, giving arguments that they are smoking since very young age and despite they are quite healthy. This is called cognitive dissonance.
iv.          Frame of References
This is yet another hurdle in the process of communication. By frame of reference, we mean that the communicator looks at a thing with his own perception and define it in his/her own words. For example, a communicator looks at the following graph with his own perception; that it is a map, while the different receivers may conceive it as flower, disturb line, leaf, etc.

Different frame of reference creates, hurdles in the process of communication.
v.            Poor Understanding
The community or the intended destination poor in understanding becomes a great obstacle in the way of communication.
vi.          Expression
Sometimes the expression of the communicator becomes a hurdle in the process of communication if it is not in accordance with the situation.
vii.     Change in custom and tradition
If the communicator wants to talk about some change in th^ custom a*nd tradition, definitely his communication will be a failure For example :- If a communicator wants to introduce Buddhism in the Pakistani society, his ideas may not be accepted by everybody because Pakistan is predominantly a Muslim country.
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Define communication. Elaborate different elements of communication?

Communication:
The word communication has originated from a Latin word “Communes” which means something common. Therefore, when we communicate, we are indeed trying to establish commonness of thoughts or feelings with other individuals. In other words, communication is a process of sharing ideas, words and attitudes, with someone. It is a basic human need. As human being we need somebody to help us, talk to us, hear to us. One of the renowned Greek Philosopher has said that a man who says that he does not need anybody is either god or a beast. The phenomenon of communication is the natural desire of human being to express his/her feelings and ideas to others. The basic purpose of communication is to bring changes in the behaviour of the receiver. The basic purpose of communication is to inform, educate and entertain people. Different scholars have defined communication differently. However, some of the acceptable definitions are :
1.         Communication is the process in which the message moves from source to destination.
2.         To communicate one’s ideas, thoughts or feelings to another person.
3.         The process of transmitting means between two individuals.
4.         Communication occurs whenever information is passed from one place to another.
5.         Communication is the tool that makes society possible and distinguishes it from other societies.
6.         The essence of communication is getting the receiver and the sender, and tunes it for a particular purpose.
7.         Communication is simply “to make known” or “to pass news and information to and from.”
8.         “Who says, what, in which channel, to whom, with what effect” Harold lesswel.
EXPLANATION :
The who is the speaker, the what, is the message, the whom refers to the receiver, the channel is medium that passes message from source to destination and the effect is the impact on ihe receiver about the message.
9.         Webster’s dictionary defines “Communication as a process by which information is exchanged between individuals through a common system of symbols, signs ; or behaviour, also techniques for expressing ideas effectively in a speech or writing.
Definitions:
1.          ” Communication is transfer of information from one person to another, whether or not it elicits confidence. But the information transferred must be understandable to the receiver – G.G. Brown.
2.         “Communication is the intercourse by words, letters or messages”- Fred G. Meyer.
We can now proceed to define communication from what we have seen above. To define means to give the precise and exact meaning of a word. The exact meaning of the word communicate is ‘to share’ or ‘to participate’. The dictionaries say that communication is the transmission of a message or information by speaking or writing. Another dictionary declares that communication is giving or exchanging information, signals, messages by talk or gestures or writing. Yet another definition says that communication is social intercourse. Communication is all this and much more. A good definition should not only give the precise meaning but also throw light on the scope of the word / expression.
Communication is giving, receiving or exchanging ideas, information, signals or messages through appropriate media, enabling individuals or groups to persuade, to seek information, to give information or to express emotions.
This broad definition includes body-language, skills of speaking and writing. It outlines the objectives of communication. It emphasizes listening as an important aspect of communication.
3.         Two-way process of reaching mutual understanding, in which participants not only exchange (encode-decode) information but also create and share meaning.
4.         “Any act by which one person gives to or receives from another person information about that person’s needs desires, perceptions, knowledge, or affective states. Communication may be intentional or unintentional, may involve conventional or unconventional signals, may take linguistic or nonlinguistic forms, and may occur through spoken or other modes.”
Elements of Communication:
Simply, we can define communication as “sharing of ideas or feelings with others.” Communication takes places when one person transmits information and understanding to another person. There is a communication when you respond or listen to someone. Movements of lips, the wave of hands or the wink of an eye may convey more meaning than even written or spoken words. The basic elements of communication process include communicator, communicatee, message, channel and feedback.
– Communicator is the sender, speaker, issuer or writer, who intends to express or send out a message.
– Communicatee is the receiver of the message for whom the communication is meant. The communicatee receives the information, order or message.
– Message, which is also known as the subject matter of this process, i.e., the content of the letter, speech, order, information, idea, or suggestion.
– Communication channel or the media through which the sender passes the information and understanding to the receiver. It acts as a connection between the communicator and the communicatee, i.e., the levels of communication or relationships that exist between different individuals or departments of an organization.
– Feedback, which is essential to make communication, a successful one. It is the effect, reply or reaction of the information transmitted to the communicatee.
Firstly, the communicator develops an exact idea about concepts, beliefs or data that he wants to convey. Then he translates the idea into words, symbols or some other form of message which he expects the receiver to understand. The communicator picks out an appropriate medium for transmitting the message. The message is then received by the communicatee. The communicatee acts upon the message as he has understood it. Finally, the effectualness of communication is assessed through response or feedback. If the communication brings in the desired changes in the actions, it is said to be successful communication.
6 Elements of Communication:
There are six elements in the process of communication which work as vehicles for sharing information, ideas and attitudes with someone. These elements are : –
 1. Source
 2. Encoding
3. Message
4. Channel
5. Receiver
6. Decoding
1.      SOURCE :-
Communication starts with the source, a person who speaks, writes or makes facial expressions is called the source. Source can be an individual or group of people or an inanimate like computer, radio, music, book, etc.
2.      ENCODING :-
Message always remains in the mind of the source in the form of an idea, when he gives physical shape to it by transmitting it into words or pictures then it becomes a message. This process is called encoding. In other words, the process of giving physical shape to one’s idea is known as encoding or the speaking mechanism of the source is called encoding. Giving names to things, ideas and experiences is also an act of encoding.
3.      MESSAGE :-
The coded idea of the sender is called message. When we write, the written script is our message. Message always transmits from source to destination. An objective of a message is to make understood the receiver as desired by the source.
4.      CHANNEL
Channel is a medium or transmitter which carries the message of the sender to the receiver. In case of mass communication, the channel might be radio, TV or newspaper. The sensing power of an individual is also channel of communication such as taste, Smell, hear and see etc.
5.      RECEIVER:
The recipient of the message is called the receiver. It may be an individual group of people or an organization.
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