5 Reasons to Study Communication in College

A degree or study in communication is a gateway to many professions. It is one of the most prestigious courses you can undertake in college. There are few slots to study communication, making admission very competitive. The field also requires an outgoing personality, limiting opportunities for students who would prefer a drawn-back life.

A communication degree will involve a lot of writing, photo handling, videos, editing, and interviews, among others. You can pay for assignments to be done UK while you focus on sharpening your skills in readiness for the competitive communications work environment. Here are some of the reasons you should study communication in college.

    1. Lucrative job offers

Communication graduates hold some of the most lucrative jobs. They are the faces of their brands and companies. For instance, they work as journalists gathering news each day and anchoring it on television. People associate media stations with particular personalities. Most of the popular anchors are communication graduates.
Communication and PR managers in corporate organizations have studied communication. They hold press conferences and appear in events on behalf of their bosses. They will appear on magazines and television or radio programs discussing their companies, new products, and partnerships. The job will thrust you into the limelight.
Companies invest in people who represent their brand. The investment comes in the form of good pay and other lucrative packages. You get to travel around the world at the expense of the company. Communication experts are some of the most connected professionals. You meet and interact with global brands. It is a lucrative area to work.

    1. Opportunity to work in diverse fields

Almost all work environments require study communication experts. Your role will be to streamline internal communication as well as link the company with external partners. You edit speeches, research press releases, and draft documents, among other roles.
A communication graduate, therefore, has a chance to work in his dream industry. Whether you want to work at a law firm, in a hospital, government department, community-based organization, NGO, or international organization, the opportunity is available. Communication studies open opportunities to work in diverse fields where you can exploit and demonstrate your passion.

    1. Excellent for entrepreneurship and self-employment

Are you looking for self-employment and entrepreneurship opportunities? A degree in communication is the perfect course to pursue. Training centers around writing, photography, video, editing, and event management, among others.
Writing skills are in high demand. You can work as a freelancer while still employed. You can start a blog on your favorite topic, helping you to earn online. If you love photography or video, you use your communication skills to start a production company.
Communication-related businesses require minimal skills to start. For instance, you can start a blog with a phone or your ordinary laptop. It takes a simple camera to start a photography business. Such reduced cost opens numerous opportunities for you to start successful businesses in communication.

    1. You possess life skills

Communication skills are valuable for life. The world will require writers forever. It also needs professional video and photo handlers. You can continue writing or blogging into your senior years. You will, therefore, acquire the most valuable skills by
studying communication.

    1. Opens room for freelancing

Do you have a freelancing spirit? Do you want to multiply your income? Take a study communication course. You can write for individuals and organizations while you still work for your current employer. It is a chance to expand your income.
Communication studies offer a wide range of professional options. You can work in the media or corporate organizations, holding some of the most lucrative positions. Communication studies also leave you with valuable life skills that you can use for freelancing or entrepreneurship. It is one of the most prestigious courses you can pursue.

Continue Reading



Functionalism Theoretical approach that conceives of social systems as living organisms whose various parts work, or function, together to maintain essential processes

Communication systems theory Theory that examines the mass communication process as composed of interrelated parts that work together to meet some goal

Social cognitive theory Theory of learning through interaction with the environment that involves reciprocal causation of behavior, personal factors, and environmental events


Merton (1967, p. 68) described middle-range theory as follows:

  1. Middle-range theories consist of limited sets of assumptions from which specific hypotheses are logically derived and confirmed by empirical investigation.
  2. These theories do not remain separate but are consolidated into wider networks of theory.
  3. These theories are sufficiently abstract to deal with differing spheres of social behavior and social structure, so that they transcend sheer description or empirical generalization.
  4. This type of theory cuts across the distinction between micro-sociological problems.
  5. The middle-range orientation involves the specification of ignorance. Rather than pretend to knowledge where it is in fact absent, this orientation expressly recognizes what must still be learned to lay the foundation for still more knowledge.

Manifest functions Intended and observed consequences of media use

Latent functions Unintended and less easily observed consequences of media use

Classic four functions of the media Surveillance, correlation, transmission of the social heritage, and entertainment

Mass entertainment theory Theory asserting that television and other mass media, because they relax or otherwise entertain average people, perform a vital social function


A system consists of a set of parts that are interlinked so that changes in one part induce changes in other parts. System parts can be directly linked through mechanical connections, or they can be indirectly linked by communication technology. Because all parts are linked, the entire system can change as a result of alterations in only one element. Systems can be goal-directed if they are designed to accomplish a long-term objective. Some systems are capable of monitoring the environment and altering their operations in response to environmental changes.


The rise of functionalism, middle-range, and systems theories in the 1950s and 1960s encouraged theorists to move beyond simplistic, fragmented, linear models of mass communication. At a time when limited-effects notions dominated, functionalism’s value-neutrality was attractive to researchers and theorists studying media’s influence, especially as functional analyses accepted the presence of latent as well as manifest functions. The strategy of developing middle-range theory offered hope of moving beyond the empirical generalizations produced by run-of-the-mill effects research. These generalizations could be “added up” to create broader theories of media. Ultimately, functionalism’s promise to more meaningfully alter the direction of mass communication theory was weakened by its inability to draw definitive conclusions about effects and by what many saw as its status quo orientation, as exemplified by research on the narcotizing dysfunction and mass entertainment theory.

Some mass communication researchers looked to a concept related to functionalism developed by communications engineers, systems, which evolved from cybernetics, the study of the regulation and control of complex machines. Systems consist of sets of parts interlinked so changes in one part induce changes in other parts. Systems theory allows the creation of models demonstrating the interdependence, selfregulation, and goal-orientation of systems. The application of systems theories to mass communication raised many important questions that forced reconsideration of the limited-effects perspective.

Reconsideration of limited-effects thinking about media also came from people interested in the influence of mediated violence on subsequent viewer aggression. Television and children were the focus of this inquiry.

Defense of the media (and the limited-effects perspective) came from proponents of catharsis, the idea that viewing violence substitutes for the actual demonstration of aggression by the viewer. But this theory was ultimately discredited as social cognitive theory became widely accepted.

Social cognitive theory proved to be a useful way of understanding how people learn behaviors from television. By differentiating between imitation and identification and identifying several different modeling processes, such as observational learning, inhibitory and disinhibitory effects, and vicarious reinforcement, it helped explain how individuals learn from the media. Even as these ideas have been applied to “new” media such as video games, they have left many questions unanswered, especially as these insights were extrapolated from micro-level analyses (where they were initially formulated) to more macro-level explanations of effects.

Research regarding aggressive cues and priming effects attempted to add some specificity to social cognitive theory, as did the developmental perspective. Another advance was the consideration of different contextual variables, aspects of the presentation of violence in the media content itself, in determining the amount of learning from viewing. Still another was a reconception of the young audience—the active theory of television viewing—that, although not dismissing media effects, did suggest that young viewers have more influence over their interaction with media than social cognitive theory seemed to imply.

The demonstration of significant media effects on individuals naturally led to the critical study of larger, macro-level effects, especially in the realm of mass communication and the socialization of children. Early notions of media as an early window on the world have recently been updated and expanded into important work on the redefinition, or even the loss, of childhood itself.

Continue Reading

Communication & International Communication

Communication & International Communication

1. What is Communication? • The word communication has originated from a Latin word “Communes” which means something common. • Communication is a process of exchanging information, ideas, thoughts, feeling and emotions through speech signals, writing or behavior. • In communication process, a sender encodes a message and then using a medium and send it to appropriate feedback using a medium

3. Importance of Communication • Express thoughts, ideas and feelings • Creating awareness • To fulfill a goal • Highlight issues • Progress, development • Educating the masses etc.

4. Process of Communication

5. Types of Communication • People communicate with each other in a number of ways that depend upon the message and its context in which it is being sent. • Types of communication based on the communication channels used are – • Verbal Communication • Nonverbal Communication

6. Nonverbal Communication • Nonverbal communication involves those nonverbal stimuli in a communication setting that are generated by both the source [speaker] and his or her use of the environment and that have potential message value for the source or receiver [listener] (Samovar et al). • Basically it is sending and receiving messages in a variety of ways without the use of verbal codes (words). • It is both intentional and unintentional. • Most speakers / listeners are not conscious of this.

7. Verbal Communication • Verbal communication is refers to the form of communication in which message is transmitted verbally, communication is done by word, mouth and a piece of writing. Objective of every communication is to have people understood what we are trying to convey. • Verbal Communication • Oral Communication • Written Communication

8. Oral Communication • In oral communication, spoken words are used. • It includes face-to-face conversations, speech, telephonic conversation, video, radio, television, voice over internet. In oral communication, communication is influence by pitch, volume, speed and clarity of speaking.

9. Written Communication • In written communication, written signs or symbols are used to communicate. • A written message may be printed or hand written. In written communication message can be transmitted via email, letter, report, memo etc. • Message, in written communication, is influenced by the vocabulary & grammar used, writing style, precision and clarity of the language used.

10. Levels of Communication • Scholars categorize different levels and types of communication. These distinctions are somewhat artificial, since types of communication more realistically fit on a continuum rather than in separate categories. Nevertheless, to understand the various types of communication, it is helpful to consider various factors. The distinguishing characteristics include the following: • Number of communicators (one through many). • Physical proximity of the communicators in relation to each other (close or distant). • Immediacy of the exchange, whether it is taking place either live or in apparently real time or on a delayed basis. • Number of sensory channels (including visual, auditory, tactile and so on). • The context of the communication (whether face-to-face or mediated). • Levels of communication can be categorized in four: • Intrapersonal Communication • Interpersonal Communication • Group Communication • Mass Communication • International Communication

11. Intrapersonal communication • Intrapersonal communication is a process in which people communicate with themselves either consciously or unconsciously • Intrapersonal Communication is communication that occurs in your own mind. It is the basis of your feelings, biases, prejudices, and beliefs. • Examples are when you make any kind of decision – what to eat or wear. When you think about something – what you want to do on the weekend or when you think about another person.

12. Interpersonal Communication • Communication between two people called interpersonal communication. • Interpersonal communication is the communication between two people but can involve more in informal conversations. • Examples are when you are talking to your friends. A teacher and student discussing an assignment. A patient and a doctor discussing a treatment. A manager and a potential employee during an interview.

13. Group Communication • Small Group communication is communication within formal or informal groups or teams. It is group interaction that results in decision making, problem solving and discussion within an organization. • Examples would be a group planning a surprise birthday party for someone. A team working together on a project.

14. Mass Communication • Communication through electronic gadgets (mass media) like books, journals, TV, newspapers etc. • Mass communication is the electronic or print transmission of messages to the general public. Outlets called mass media include things like radio, television, film, and printed materials designed to reach large audiences. • A television commercial. A magazine article. Hearing a song on the radio. Books, newspapers, billboards. The key is that you are reaching a large amount of people without it being face to face. Feedback is generally delayed with mass communication.

15. International Communication • The phenomenon of global communication as we know it today is essentially the result of technological advancements. It probably started with the development of advanced transport technology such as the steam engine and the internal combustion engine. • Currently it is primarily driven by the worldwide proliferation of advanced information and communication technologies (ICTs)

16. Classic Understanding • Involves or is carried across or takes place between two or more nation-states • Interactions between and among nation-states • International relations • Traditionally been associated with inter-state and inter- governmental interactions • Diplomacy and government propaganda in which powerful states dictate the communication agenda

17. Expansion of the Scope of IC • Communication across national borders has expanded to a large diversity of business-to-business and people-to-people interactions at a global level. • Not only the representatives of nation-states, but also a variety of non-state actors such as international non- governmental bodies, social movements as well as ordinary individuals are increasingly shaping the nature of transnational communication. • Communication between nation-states, institutions, groups and individuals across national, geographical and cultural borders

18. Definition of IC • Thussu defines international communication simply as communication that occurs across international borders. • Words, acts or attitudes can be depicted as international communication whenever they impinge – intentionally or unintentionally – upon the minds of private individuals, officials or groups from other countries (Massachusett’s Institute’s Center for International Studies). • International communication is an extremely broad field involving social conditions, attitudes and institutions that have an effect on the production and/or reception of various forms of communication among people. • It recognises not only the media and technologies through which impulses pass, but also the attitudes and social circumstances of the sources, the predisposition of receivers as well as the effects and impact of the contents.

19. Communication Technologies • Global connectedness was enhanced by the development of ICTs such as the telegraph and telephone; the laying of submarine cables between Europe and the USA; the expansion of railroads and the development of modern navigation with the help of newly developed radio technology. • This period also saw the growth of the major international news agencies in Europe and the United States • The period was furthermore characterised by the hegemony of the great European powers that used the developing communication technologies, media and international news agencies not only to enhance their powers globally and to acquire colonies and manage empires, but also to foster Westernisation and Europeanisation around the world.

20. Importance of Public Opinion • The great world powers also started to realise the impact of and importance of public opinion and the value of propaganda especially in wartimes as well as the potential of the developing media such as the radio in this regard. The spread of contending ideologies such as liberalism, communism, fascism and a number of Islamic movements furthermore led to the increasing usage of the fast developing media, the press and communication technologies to organize the transnational activities of revolutionary movements. • However, it was in the period after World War II that the growth of global communication really accelerated (Mowlana 1996). This acceleration was firstly driven by the continued development and expansion of media such as television and, most importantly, the rapid development, improvement and widespread proliferation of ICTs such as satellites and computers.

21. Democracy and Media • The rise of democracy and the attainment of independence by many former colonies of the great European powers also led to an increase in the number of nation-states who participated in the political, cultural and socio-economic aspects of international communication (Mowlana 1996). During this period the USA emerged as the dominant political power and increasingly employed the media as well as ICTs not only for the purposes of economic and military domination, but also economically and culturally.

22. International Communication • The acceleration of international conferences; the international expansion of educational institutions, congresses and seminars; the exchange of students between countries; the popularization of international travel; and the expansion of international sport furthermore increased contact and communication between the peoples of the world. • In this competitive world with its revolving economic and communication giants, the globe has been transformed into a global electronic village and information has emerged as a primary commodity and resource. • The conclusion can be drawn that global communication is in a continuous state of ferment and evolution .

23. Effects of Global Communication • The borders of nation-states have become porous as the globalisation of technology has made it virtually impossible for governments to regulate and control the transborder flow of information and communication. • Global media systems have furthermore introduced propaganda and public diplomacy as important factors in international relations. • Global communication is radically redefining the nature of both hard and soft power in international relations.

24. McLuhan’s(1964) notionof theglobalvillage • Socially, integrated global communication networks has to a certain extent resulted in the realisation of McLuhan’s (1964) notion of the global village with the emergence of, among others, global interconnectedness, global consciousness and global co-operation between NGOs in widely different areas such as human rights, women’s rights and environmental protection. Social relations are no longer restricted to a particular space or locality, but are dispersed globally and spatially as ICTs create and maintain social relations irrespective of time and space.

25. Global Digital Telecommunication • However, one of the most important consequences is probably the blurring of the boundaries between technological, economic, political, social and cultural domains . • Both traditional media (eg print, photography, film, radio, television and videos) as well as the fast developing new information and communication technologies (ICTs) (eg telephone and telegraphy, satellites and computers) that have initially developed fairly independently, are merging into a global digital telecommunications network.

Continue Reading

Research , Importance of Research, Aims and Motives

Why Research? Importance of Research. Aims and Motives of social research.

What Is Research?

Research comprises “creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.” It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories. A research project may also be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects, or the project as a whole. The primary purposes of basic research (as opposed to applied research) are documentation, discovery, interpretation, or the research and development (R&D) of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies, which vary considerably both within and between humanities and sciences. There are several forms of research: scientific, artistic, economic, social, business, marketing, practitioner research, life, technological etc.

Research has been defined in a number of different ways.

A broad definition of research is given by Godwin Colibao – “In the broadest sense of the word, the definition of research includes any gathering of data, information and facts for the advancement of knowledge.’’

Another definition of research is given by John W. Creswell who states that – “Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps: Pose a question, collect data to answer the question, and present an answer to the question.

The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary defines research in more detail as “a studious inquiry or examination; especially investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws”

Importance of research

Research is actually an act of studying something carefully and extensively in order to attain deep knowledge in the same. For being successful, research should be systematic, arranged, summarized and recorded properly. Research is not only a process that is limited to the field of science. It can, as well, cater to people and scholars from artistic, historic or any other field where an individual is willing to do extensive study to get relevant information. Research can be creative, exploring or just reassuring in nature. Each one of us does some or the other research in our lifetime for sure. Research can affect a subject both positively and negatively and can be constructive or destructive in nature. Some people believe that research is mostly destructive in nature. However, you need to understand that it’s not the results from a research that determine its use; it’s the people who handle the results. In the following lines, we have just tried to emphasize the importance of research.

Significance of Research

To Gather Necessary Information

Research provides you with all necessary information in field of your work, study or operation before you begin working on it. For example, most companies do research before beginning a project in order to get a basic idea about the things they will need to do for the project. Research also helps them get acquainted with the processes and resources involved and reception from the market. This information helps in the successful outcome of the project.

To Make Changes

Sometimes, there are in-built problems in a process or a project that is hard to discover. Research helps us find the root cause and associated elements of a process. The end result of such a research invokes a demand for change and sometimes is successful in producing changes as well. For example, many U.N researches have paved way for changes in environmental policies.

Improving Standard Of Living

Only through research can new inventions and discoveries come into life. It was C.V Raman’s research that prompted invention of radio communication. Imagine how you would have communicated had Graham Bell not come out with the first ever practical telephone! Forget telephones, what would have happened if Martin Cooper did not present the world the concept of mobile phones! Addicted as we are to mobile phones, we need to understand that all the luxuries and the amenities that are now available to us are the result of research done by someone. And with the world facing more and crisis each day, we need researchers to find new solutions to tackle them.

 For A Safer Life

Research has made ground breaking discoveries and development in the field of health, nutrition, food technology and medicine. These things have improved the life expectancy and health conditions of human race in all parts of the world and helped eradicate diseases like polio, smallpox completely. Diseases that were untreatable are now history, as new and new inventions and research in the field of medicine have led to the advent of drugs that not only treat the once-incurable diseases, but also prevent them from recurring.

 To Know the Truth

It has been proved time and again that many of established facts and known truths are just cover ups or blatant lies or rumors. Research is needed to investigate and expose these and bring out the truth.

Research form an important aspect in any profession. As per the dictionary meaning Research is a systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions.

The primary purpose of any research is of discovering, interpretation and analysis of information so to enhance human knowledge.

Research in Mass Communication and Journalism forms a core aspect in decision making, expressing and analyzing of news, views and information. Media is a very sensitive area as it is connected to the masses therefore care should be taken in the delivery of the message to the masses.

Accuracy and Objectivity is must in news reporting. A story should always be well researched before publishing or airing on TV. In Broadcast Media different programs are produced to run 24 hours news channels for that knowing audience behavior. Audience behavioral research can give an idea to a researcher. A good program is always a well researched program.

Media practitioner can do their job more effectively if they get to know about the target audience which can help them in planning and executing programs. Media research is also used in conducting surveys, public opinion polls, Advertising and Public Relations campaigns which helps in providing perspective to a report.

Top 5 Major Objectives of Social Research

This article throws light on the five major objectives of social research, i.e,

(1)Manipulation of Things, Concepts and Symbols,

(2) Generalization,

(3)Verification of Old Facts,

(4) Extension of Knowledge,

(5) Knowledge May be Used for Theory Building or Practical Application.


  1. Manipulation of Things, Concepts and Symbols:

While, dealing with things the scientist remains at the concrete level. He is able to purposefully handle things for experimentation. But at this level his results are at best limited to the particular thing in a specific situation and none else. Therefore the concepts symbolizing the things and their properties are also dealt with, so as to make much sense to conduct controlled inquiries through abstract notions. Use of concepts or symbols in the process of manipulation not only reduces the content and load of the things but also provides the scientist with greater facility and effect.

  1. Generalization:

The sole purpose with which manipulation of things, concepts or symbols is undertaken is to arrive at statements of generality. It implies that the findings of controlled investigation should be a conclusion which will enable us to expect that under certain class of conditions influencing a class of things, something will happen in a generalized manner, notwithstanding its degree.

But in any case the absence is generality cannot characterize science. Therefore the propositions derived on the basis of observations and through manipulation of things, concepts or symbols may vary in their levels of generality, may maintain a high or low degree but should never reach the null point.

Otherwise those will move beyond the framework of science. In this regard, Slesinger and Stepheson have given the example of a physician or automobile mechanic as playing the role of a researcher. Whereas the automobile mechanic endeavors to generalize about the automobiles, the physician attempts to make ailments for a given class of patients.

  1. Verification of Old Facts:

A major purpose of social research is verification of conclusions which have already been accepted as established facts. Since there is no place for complacency in the arena of science, the established system of knowledge always warrant frequentative scrutiny so as to confirm whether or not the observations are in accordance with the predictions made on the basis of the established corpus of knowledge. In case it is confirmed, the empirical observation strengthens the established system of knowledge. Otherwise in the light of the research outcome, the system of established corpus of knowledge calls for revision or even rejection.

  1. Extension of Knowledge:

As a sequel to generalization the seemingly inconsistencies in the existing corpus of knowledge are brought into light and attempts are made to reconcile these inconsistencies. The new general proposition, established as an outcome of research also identifies gaps in the established system of knowledge. A gap in knowledge implies the inadequacy of the theory as well as the failure of a conceptual scheme to explain and account for certain aspects of a social phenomenon.

The gap is bridged up in the light of the new empirical observations. Thus knowledge gets expanded. The expansion of systematic knowledge occurs at least in a couple of ways. First in cognizing certain aspects of phenomena which were not examined in these terms prior to the advent of the new general proposition.

Secondly in the light of new observation, the phenomena under investigation may be incorporated in a comparatively large class of phenomena, so as to be governed by a uniform law. As a result, the new system of knowledge not only accumulates more units under its conceptual scheme, but also appreciates greater depth of understanding and bettering of predictions.

  1. Knowledge May be Used for Theory Building or Practical Application:

By seeking to explain the unexplained social phenomena, clarifying the doubtful one and correcting the misconceived facts relating to it, social research provides the scope to use the fruits of research in two possible ways:

(a) Theory building

(b) Practical application.

In its basic or pure form social research gathers knowledge for the sake of it, for building a theory in order to explain human behavior in its totality, only for the satisfaction of knowing. For construction of theoretic models, the researcher organizes knowledge into propositions and then meaningfully articulated those propositions to constitute a more abstract conceptual system pertaining to a class of phenomena, influenced by a certain class of conditions.

In its practical or applied form, social research gathers information regarding the betterment of quality of life in social settings. The findings of social research are used as the means to an end, not construed just as an end in itself From its utilitarian point of view the results of social research provide decision makers with proper guidelines for policy making, social welfare, amelioration of practical problems, mitigation or resolution of social conflict and tensions as well as rectification and removal of social evils.

Research In Mass Communication

During the early part of the twentieth century, there was no interest in the size of an audience or in the types of people who make up the audience. Since then, mass media operators have come to rely on research results for nearly every major decision they make. The increased demand for information has created a need for more researchers, both public and private. In addition, within the research field are many specializations. Research directors plan and supervise studies and act as liaisons to management; methodological specialists provide statistical support; research analysts design and interpret studies; and computer specialists provide hardware and software support in data analysis.

Research in mass media is used to verify or refute opinions or intuitions for decision makers. Although common sense is some- times accurate, media decision makers need additional objective information to evaluate problems, especially when they make decisions that involve large sums of money. The past 60 years have witnessed the evolution of a decision-making approach that com bines research and intuition to produce a higher probability of success.

Research is not limited only to decision- making situations. It is also widely used in theoretical areas to attempt to describe the media, to analyze media effects on consumers, to understand audience behavior, and so on. Every day there are references in the media to audience surveys, public opinion polls, growth projections, status reports of one medium or another, or advertising or public relations campaigns. As philosopher Suzanne Langer (1967) said, “Most new discoveries are suddenly-seen things that were always there.” Mass media researchers have a great deal to see, and virtually everyone is exposed to this information every day.

Two final points before we get into media research: First, media research and the need for qualified researchers will continue to grow, but it is difficult to find qualified researchers who can work in the public and private sectors. Second, we urge you to search the Internet for additional information on every topic discussed in this book. We have identified some areas for further investigation, but do not limit your searching to only our suggestions. Internet searches are not good for primary research, but they are useful as a starting point for information gathering.

Origins and Growth of Mass Media Research

At least four major events or social forces have encouraged the growth of mass media research.

The first was World War I, which prompted a need to understand the nature of propaganda. Researchers working from a stimulus-response point of view attempted to uncover the effects of the media on people (Lasswell, 1927). The media at that time were thought to exert a powerful influence over their audiences, and several assumptions were made about what the media could and could not do. One theory of mass media, later named the hypodermic needle model of communication, suggested that mass communicators need only “shoot” messages at an audience and those messages would produce preplanned and al- most universal effects. The belief then was that all people behave in similar ways when they encounter media messages. We know now that individual differences among people rule out this overly simplistic view. As DeFleur and Ball-Rokeach (1989) note

These assumptions may not have been explicitly formulated at the time, but they were drawn from fairly elaborate theories of human nature, as well as the nature of the social order. . . . It was these theories that guided the thinking of those who saw the media as powerful.

A second contributor to the development of mass media research was the realization by advertisers in the 1950s and 1960s that research data are useful in developing ways to persuade potential customers to buy products and services. Consequently, advertisers encouraged studies of message effectiveness, audience demographics and size, placement of advertising to achieve the highest level of exposure (efficiency), frequency of advertising necessary to persuade potential customers, and selection of the medium that offered the best chance of reaching the target audience.

A third contributing social force was the increasing interest of citizens in the effects of the media on the public, especially on children. The direct result was an interest in research related to violence and sexual content in television programs and in commercials aired during children’s programs. Researchers have expanded their focus to include the positive (prosocial) as well as the negative (antisocial) effects of television. Investigating violence on television is still an important endeavor, and new research is published every year.

Increased competition among the media for advertising dollars was a fourth contributor to the growth of research. Most media managers are now sophisticated and use managers are now sophisticated and use and an increasing dependency on data to support the decisions they make. Even program producers seek relevant research data, a task usually assigned to the creative side of program development. In addition, the mass media now focus on audience fragmentation, which means that the mass of people is divided into small groups, or niches (technically referred to as the “demassification” of the mass media). Researchers need information about these smaller groups of people.

The competition among the media for audiences and advertising dollars continues to reach new levels of complexity. The media “survival kit” today includes information about consumers’ changing values and tastes, shifts in demographic patterns, and developing trends in lifestyles. Audience fragmentation increases the need for trend studies (fads, new behavior patterns), image studies (people’s perceptions of the media and their environment), and segmentation studies (explanations of behavior by types or groups of people). Large research organizations, consultants, and media owners and operators conduct research that was previously considered the sole property of the marketing, psychology, and sociology disciplines. With the advent of increased competition and audience fragmentation media managers more frequently use marketing strategies in an attempt to discover their position in the marketplace. When this position is identified, the medium is packaged as an “image” rather than a product. (Similarly, the producers of consumer goods such as soap and toothpaste try to sell the “image” of these products because the products themselves are similar, if not the same, from company to company.)

This packaging strategy involves deter mining what the members of the audience think, how they use language, how they spend their spare time, and so on. Information on these ideas and behaviors is then used in the merchandising effort to make the medium seem to be part of the audience Positioning thus involves taking information from the audience and interpreting the data to use in marketing the medium. (For more information about positioning companies and products in the business and consumer worlds, see Ries & Trout, 1997, 2001.)

Much of the media research before the early 1960s originated in psychology and sociology departments at colleges and universities. Researchers with backgrounds in the media were rare because the mass media were young. But this situation has changed. Media departments in colleges and universities grew rapidly in the 1960s, and media researchers entered the scene. Today mass media researchers dominate the mass media research field, and now the trend is to encourage cross-disciplinary studies in which media researchers invite participation from sociologists, psychologists, and political scientists. Because of the pervasiveness of the media, researchers from all areas of science are now actively involved in attempting to answer media-related questions.

Modern mass media research includes a variety of psychological and sociological investigations, such as physiological and emotional responses to television programs, commercials, or music played on radio stations. In addition, computer modeling and other sophisticated computer analyses are now commonplace in media research to determine such things as the potential success of television programs (network or syndicated). Once considered eccentric by some, mass media research is now a legitimate and esteemed field.

Continue Reading

Various Steps involved in evaluating a Development Support Communication Campaign

Define evaluation and explain various steps involved in evaluating a DSC Campaign.


Words themselves do not carry the same meanings through time and space. A word which gave a specific meaning a hundred years ago may not give the same meanings today – for scores of reasons. Similarly meanings of same words are changed at some distance. A verbal message which once stood for certain meanings, may not always stand for the same meanings because static meaning evaluation does not hold in any language.

Various steps involved in evaluating a DSC Campaign

The term can be described as development planning and implementation in which adequate action is taken of human behavioral factors in the design of development project and their objectivities. It addresses development planning and the plan of operation for implementation. It (DSC) stands for linking all agencies involved in the planned development works such as political executives, political planners, development administrators, subject specialists, field workers, opinion leaders, media representatives, researchers and the beneficiaries who continue the final delivery points and the consumers of the information. The route of communication envisaged is not only vertical as flowing from upper level to bottom or bottom.

The practice of Development Support Communication, DSC, is a multi-sectoral process of information sharing about development agendas and planned actions. It links planners, beneficiaries and implementers of development action, including the donor community. It obligates planners and implementers to provide clear, explicit and intelligible data and information about their goals and roles in development, and explicitly provides opportunities for beneficiaries to participate in shaping development outcomes. It ensures that the donor community is kept constantly aware of the achievements and constraints of development efforts in the field.

In short, DSC is a legitimate function of development planning and implementation. DSC therefore needs to be examined as a valuable «technology» for using the social communication process to foster and strengthen sustainable development at local and national levels. It should be taken more seriously in programs of social change, and should be reflected explicitly in development policy and strategy. One way of doing so is through the enunciation of a national information and communication policy, which can be explicitly integrated into national development thinking and practice.

Ex-post evaluation would resume this effort several years after completion of the investment, to review comprehensively the experience and impact of a project as a basis for future policy formulation and project design.

Indicators used for evaluations include fields of major crops and changes in cropping intensity and patterns.


The following steps are usually involved in evaluation process.

 Evaluation Plan : A detailed plan of activities to be undertaken in the process of evaluation is prepared before embarking on the journey. The plan identifies what, why things have and how to be done. This will make things clear that: how to conduct the evaluation within the stipulated budget the plan will help getting input of every one in the evaluation team and the existence of plan will also help to focus the evaluation on questions of the target audiences.

 Reasons for evaluation : These reasons have already been mentioned in the foregoing pages. However, the evaluator should determine his priorities which reasons are most important and focus the evaluation accordingly.

Audiences of Evaluation : The audiences for evaluation, may be the change agents, advisory councils, programme sponsors programme participants and the general public. These groups of audiences are so varied because,different audiences have different concerns about the programme.

The Criteria for Evaluating the Programme : Criteria are the yardsticks used to measure the merit or worth of a programme. For example, a criterion for an extension programme may be the number of women farmers who adopt a particular practice. If an evaluation indicates that the specified number did, and adopt the practice, the programme can be considered a sucicess as far as this criterion is concerned. For example, where programme emphasis is on increasing the output of cash crops, an unintended outcome may be that land formerly used to grow food crops changes to cash cropping land. This has particular effects on women farmers who frequently grow food crops. Unintended outcomes such as these should be a part of the evaluation. The main source of criteria should be the basic intent and objectives of a programme. If a programme was developed in response to a particular need, a major concern of the evaluation should be whether the programme is meeting the need, or to what extent it meets the need.

The evidence that will be available for Evaluation : Evidence consists of information related to a particular criterion. While deciding as to the type of evidence to be used, adjustments will almost always have to be made between what is the best or ideal type and what it is possible to obtain.

There are various ways of classifying evidence that can be used in DSC evaluations. Sabrosky (1967,p-26).) distinguished between two major types, such as, evidence in terms of changes in the behaviour of people, and evidence in terms of opportunity. In the former case the major consideration is whether audiences have changed their attitudes or practices as a result of the DSC method or activity. In the latter case, Sabrosky pointed out, “When it is difficult or impossible to measure progress at the level or original status or change in people themselves, it is desirable to measure work in terms of the learning situation we have set up. (No written materials go out, no talks are given, no demonstrations ai-e put on, no visits are made); we cannot expect the people to learn anything as a result of extension work.”

What can be considered an expanded version of Sabrosky’s classification of types of evidence has been given by Bennett (1977). He proposes seven levels of evidence for programme evaluations that can be arranged in a hierarchy. The levels of evidence, and examples of evidence at each level, are shown in Table I. At each level what was planned or anticipated can be compared to what was actually achieved. For example, at the “inputs” level, the actual time spent by extension staff on a programme, or aspect of a programme, can be compared with the amount of time such staff had planned to spend in many extension programmes, such sophistication in planning may be rare.

“Evidence of programme impact becomes stronger as the hierarchy is ascended to levels 1 to 3 provide ways of measuring possible opportunities for education to occur. He also pointed out that, “Ascentling to the fourth level, reactions, can provide somewhat better confirmation of whether given’activities are helpful as intended. But such evidence indicates less satisfactorily than evidence of KASA (knowledge, Attitudes, Skills, Aspirations } changes the extent of progress towards ultimate programme objective.” The ideal assessment of impact would be obtained at the highest level in the hierarchy, in terms of whether the desired end results have been achieved, and the assessment of any significant side effects. 2. “The difficulty and cost of obtaining evidence on programme accomplishments generally increases as the hierarchy is ascended” (Bennett, 1977, p.9). Although evidence at the lower levels does not provide as strong an indication of impact as those at the higher levels, it is relatively more difficult and costly to obtain evidence at the higher, levels. 3. “Evaluations are strengthened by assessing extension programmes at several levels of, the hierarch)/ including the inputs level” (Bennett. 1977, p.9).

“Evaluation is strengthened to the extent the specific criteria for evaluation are defined prior to conduct of the Extension programme” (Bennett, 1977, p.11). The basic point here is that early clarification of programme objectives will assist in the subsequent conduct of evaluations. Evidence obtained prior to programme execution (e.g. level of knowledge, attitudes and skills of programme participants) will provide a benchmark against which progress (as a result of participating in a programme) can be judged.

“The harder the evidence for evaluation, the more an evaluation may be relied upon in programme decision making” (Bennett, 1977, p.12).

Designs for Evaluation Studies : A variety of designs can be used in collecting evidence for evaluation studies. Bennett (1977) provides a list of these in order of their potential ability to provide strong Scientific evidence of the degree to which observed change is produced through extension programmes. A modified list of these designs is as follows:

1. The Field Experiment •

2. Matched Set Design

3. -Before-After” Study

4. The Survey

5. The Case Study

The field experiment provides the strongest scientific evidence and the case study the weakest, for the purposes of evaluation. Some evaluation studies may incorporate elements of several of the designs listed above. Generally, the first two designs are hardly used in the regular conduct of evaluations, because they are expensive and difficult to handle. The last three designs listed above will be described briefly below:

“Before-after” study. In this type of study, observations are made before and after participation in an extension programme. The changes in the status of participants can be attributed to the programme after other competitive explanations (for example, unusual weather affecting crop yields, other programmes) have been logically ruled out.

The survey. This design is perhaps the one most often used in conducting extension evaluations. It does not require observations before a programme is implemented. and is generally.easier to carry out and is less expensive than the “before-after” design. However, according to Bennett (1977, p. 19) it “generally provides rather weak conclusions about the extent to which extension rather than other forces, produces any observed differences between extension clientele and non-clientele.”

Surveys can be used to collect data on people’s perceptions and opinions about programme activities, and the results of programmes. Surveys can also seek information on the status of participants prior to their participation in a programme.

The survey design usually requires use of questionnaires sent through the mail, or administered through personal interviews. Sampling techniques are generally used to select the target population.

The case study. According to Bennett (1977, p.20), “Case studies observe intensively one or, only a few selected individuals, groups, or communities. Observation may involve examination of existing records, interviewing, or participant observation”. Although the evidence provided by this design is not as strong as those from other designs, case studies can reveal information about a programme which is not accessible by other means. It is usually most effectively used as a supplement to other evaluation designs.

Conduct the Evaluation :

I. Analyse the Data Different types of data analysis techniques can be used. It may be presented through the method of question-answer or can be provided in a report form. Good data analysis relies on emphasis-on those aspects that are related to the particular issues addressed by the evaluation.

II. Report the Findings The findings of evaluation should be reported at the completion to the audience being addressed.

III. Application of the Findings Evaluation would not end until the findings are properly reported and implemented in the on-going project for improvement or in the planning of future project.

Continue Reading

M Phil Mass Communication from AIOU

M Phil Mass Communication from Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad

Schedule for submission of Admission Form with Rs.500 Processing Fee: 01-08-2014 to 05-09-2014.
Schedule for submission of Admission Form with Rs.1000 Processing Fee: 05-09-2014 to 15-09-2014.
 Admission Form with Rs.1500 Processing Fee: 15-09-2014 to 25-09-2014.



The Department of Mass Communication was established in 1986 for fulfilling the educational needs of students and for working journalists and media persons at various levels. The Department offered its specialized B.A cluster programme in Mass Communication in 1988 for the first time in the country at graduate level. Students across the country are taking interest in the programme.

In 1997 the Department started its M Sc. Mass Communication Programme. Keeping in view the trend of students in studying the phenomenon of Mass Communication, the Department launched advanced studies of M Phil in Mass Communication in 2000. The M Phil imparts the knowledge of evolution and advances in mass communication theory and research, sociology of mass media, and the methods of behavioural research in social sciences.

The Department resumes offering of its Ph D Programme in this semester (Autumn 2014). The main objective of the programmes is to enable students to understand and explain the dynamics of the social phenomena of mass communication in Pakistani society, especially to enable them to independently investigate the contents, uses and effects of mass media in society.

In addition to the above degree programmes, the Department also offers Post Graduates Diploma (PGD) and certificate courses in Journalism, such as Advertising and Public Relations in the University’s Short Term Educational Programmes (STEPS).


a)      M Phil Mass Communication

M Phil scheme in Mass Communication comprises twenty four (24) credit hours of course work and twelve (12) credit hours of research project. The course work consists of Evolution of Mass Communication Research, Mass Media and Society (I & II), Foundations of Behavioural Research (I & II), Theories of Influence on Media Content and Media Effects and Advances in Theory and Research (I & II). This programme will make students learn the social phenomenon of Mass Communication and urge them to independently investigate the mass media effects on society.

1. Duration of M Phil Programme

The minimum  duration of M Phil Mass Communication is two years (four semesters) and the maximum duration shall be five years (10 semesters).


2. Eligibility for Admission

The minimum entry requirement for admission to M.Phil programme shall be Masters Degree in Mass Communication/ Journalism with second division from any recognized University.

  • Merit will be determined by the Department of Mass Communication according to the approved criteria.
  • Only short-listed candidates will be called for test/interview.
  • The Department enrolls limited number of students to the programme.
  • The Admission Department will inform the selected candidates for fee deposit.

3.   Medium of Instruction

The medium of instruction and examination is English.

4.   Scheme of Studies

There will be 24 credit hours course work and 12 credit hours of thesis. Details are given below:


5.   Semester-Wise Course Offering


Course Title


Credit Hours


1st Semester


Evolution of Mass

Communication Research

Mass Media and Society-I

Mass Media and Society-II

Foundations of Behavioural Research-I












2nd Semester


Media Effects: Advances in Theory & Research-I

Media Effects: Advances in Theory & Research-II

Foundations of Behavioural Research-II

Theories of Influence on Mass Media Content












3rd & 4th Semester

Research Project/Thesis



6.  Instructional Methodology

The following will be the instructional methodology:


i.    Study Material

The university provides study materials during the first two semesters of course work.


ii.   Workshop

There is a series of mandatory workshops at the end of each semester that provides an opportunity to the students to share their understanding of course content with fellow students. A special workshop is arranged during the third semester that requires students to develop and present draft proposals of thesis to the workshop participants.

iii.  Assignments

Each course carries a maximum of 100 marks. There are two assignments for each 3-credit hours’ course. Assignments are written by the students after studying the required readings, recommended by the Department. These assignments are designed to enable them to relate their own ideas with the concepts covered in the required readings so as to enable them to develop thorough understanding of the subject. After completion, the students send these assignments on scheduled time to the tutor appointed by the university. The tutor returns the assignments to students after giving valuable comments, and marks.

iv.  Thesis

A student is required to carry research work under the supervision of an advisor having Ph D degree in the relevant field. There is an intensive workshop to discuss research proposals of the students.


7.  Assessment System

Under Continuous Assessment (Assignments), a student has to submit Assignments to his/her tutor in the stipulated time mentioned in the assignment schedule. Passing marks of the assignments are 50 percent.


At the end of each semester, final examination will be conducted by the University for each Course. Students need 50 percent marks to pass the final examination; however, it is necessary for the students to obtain an aggregate of 50 percent (assignments + workshop + final examination) in each course. The ratio of marks of assignments, workshop and final examination is 20:10:70 respectively. The summary of assessment system is given below:


Assessment Component

Total Marks

Passing Marks


Assignment – 1




Assignment – 2



Students will have to attend compulsory course workshop at the end of semester having 10 marks for each course


Final examination




Total  Marks


Aggregate Passing Marks



8.  Viva-Voce

After evaluation of the thesis student has to appear for viva-voce before the Research Project Committee (RPC) to defend his/her work.


9.  Instructions for Thesis

i.   Registration in Thesis

Students will submit research proposal/synopsis to the Chairman, Mass Communication Department according to the university’s approved criteria. The Departmental Research Project Committee will recommend the students’ research proposals/ synopses to the VC (AIOU) for approval after thesis orientation workshop. The committee shall also recommend the name of supervisor for students’ research work.

♦    Thesis will be of 200 marks, (100 marks for evaluation of research work and 100 marks for oral examination.)

♦    The minimum period to complete the thesis is one year and the maximum period shall be two years provided the condition of maximum duration of five years shall not be affected. (Detailed information in this regard can be obtained from the Department on request).

♦    Students are advised to keep closely in touch with their respective supervisor and also with the Department for research activities and submit their progress reports to the Department intermittently.


ii.   Thesis Evaluation Fee

Students will deposit fee in bank for thesis evaluation at the time of submitting the thesis to the Department.


iii.  Plagiarization

In case a thesis is found to be plagiarized version of some other thesis, research work, text, etc. published or unpublished, the student’s candidature for M Phil shall be cancelled and he/she shall be debarred forever from admission to any programme of the university. In case the plagiarism is proved, after the award of M Phil degree, the degree shall be cancelled/withdrawn.


The M Phil degree shall be awarded after the positive reports of external evaluators of the research report and the successful defence by the student in viva-voce. The Dean will forward the report of the Viva-Voce to the Controller of Examinations for notification and award of the degree.


iv.  Format of Thesis

The students will be required to observe guidelines regarding format, writing, referencing, paper quality and other related matters. (Detailed information in this regard could get from the Department on request or the information on format will be provided during the thesis orientation workshop).


v.   Research and Candidacy

The Department will hold synopsis orientation workshop to identify the topic of research. The synopsis shall be prepared in accordance with the guidelines/format approved by BASR. The student shall submit a detailed research proposal in the third semester (after the completion of course work) and make a presentation before the Departmental Synopsis Committee.

Participation in the orientation workshop will be mandatory. The students shall be required to deposit the prescribed dues after approval of topic/symposia by the committee.


In case a student is not able to complete his/her research work during the minimum prescribed period of one year, he/she shall be required to pay fee equivalent to 3–credit hours per semester till submission of thesis for evaluation within the maximum time limit.

10.  Fee Tariff

Registration Fee                                                       Rs.200/-

Admission Fee+Rs.100/- Technology Fee                Rs.1100/-

Course Fee (3– Credit Hours)                                  Rs.2800/-

Thesis Fee                                                                Rs.11140/-

Thesis Evaluation Fee                                              Rs.4725/-


11. General Information

Only the prescribed admission form will be entertained. Website downloaded form or photocopy of the form and incomplete forms will not be entertained, in any case.


Admission to M Phil Mass Communication will be granted against limited seats strictly on the basis of merit and criteria as approved by the university. The university reserves the right not to start this programme if a viable group of students is not formed.


Only the selected candidates will be informed about the result of the admission. On receipt of individual admission intimation, the student will deposit the required fee according to the procedure as laid down by the university in the admission intimation letter.

Fee cannot be refunded once paid for admission nor can it be adjusted for any other programme. On payment of the registration fee, each student will be issued a registration number. The number must be quoted in all the future correspondence along with roll numbers, course(s) code numbers and semester. The students already having registration number need not to pay the registration fee. They should mention their registration number in the admission form.

During the semester the address of any student will not be changed, however, in real hardship, change of address will be considered if it is supported by a justifiable plea.


Rules, regulations framed, amended and changed from time to time by the authorities/bodies of the university will be applicable to all students. The students will have to abide by all such rules and regulations. These can be made available to students on demand.

It is the responsibility of the admitted students to remain in continuous contact with the department regarding his/her programme. A student already enrolled to a programme or a specialization of a programme shall not be allowed to transfer his/her admission to another programme.

Admission to courses for the spring semester and autumn semester are generally offered in the months of February and August respectively. The continuing students are sent computerized admission forms. However, if for any reason, the student does not get the said form, he/she may get general admission form from any regional office of the university and send it to Director Admission of the university within the due date along with due fee deposited through bank challan slip.

12. Fee Depositing Procedure

Only on receipt of admission offer, the candidate would pay dues in accordance with the fee tariff as directed by the Admission Office.


13.  How to Apply for Admission?

Candidates for M Phil are required to send complete admission forms along with attested copies of all educational degrees, certificates, and marks sheet at the following address before the closing date.  Incomplete admission forms will not be accepted.


Note: Admission form complete in all respect must be sent on the following address:


Professor Syed Abdul Siraj (Ph.D)


Department of Mass Communication

AIOU, Sector H-8, Islamabad.



For clarification about academic matters please contact on the following address:


13.  Faculty Members


Name & Designation

Contact No.


Prof. Dr. Syed Abdul Siraj




Dr. Saqib Riaz

Assistant Professor



Dr. Bakht Rawan

Assistant Professor



Mrs. Saadia Anwar Pasha




Mr. Shahid Hussain




Syed Babar Hussain Shah







Continue Reading

What is the procedure of Mass Communication Internship?

MSc. Mass Communication Intern-ship Procedure

1. You may Apply for the Mass Communication Internship Letter after 3rd Semester Exam Passed.

2. Write an Application to the Mass Communication Department and make a request to issue an Internship Letter to complete mandatory part of the MSc. Mass Communication.

Preview of the Request Letter.


The Department of Mass Communication,

Allama Iqbal Open University,

Islamabad, Pakistan

Subject:          Request for an internship Letter of MSc. Mass Communication

With most respectfully, it is stated that I the applicant has completed my 3 Semester and Final Semester result is waiting from AIOU Islamabad.

Now i request to you, that kindly send me the internship letter, so that  complete mandatory part of the MSc. Mass Communication on time.


Your’s sincerely,

Applicant Name



3.After above application the department will send you following letter and evaluation-performa.

4. After receiving of an official internship letter, you have to join the institution mentioned in the letter and present this letter to that institution for your internship.

5. On  Completion of internship, the institution administration will issue you a certificate of completion and performa will be filled , signed and stamped by authorities and send back to the Department of Mass Communication with a report of 15 to 25 pages relating your internship (i.e what you did and learn during internship?).

6. Download MSc. Mass Communication Internship Report Sample.

Download Free Full Mass Communication Internship Report Sample to Submit.



For more information and details call on the following number: 051-9057245

Continue Reading
1 2 3 9