FOCUS ON FUNCTIONALISM AND CHILDREN

FOCUS ON FUNCTIONALISM AND CHILDREN

MOVING BEYOND LIMITED EFFECTS: FOCUS ON FUNCTIONALISM AND CHILDREN Functionalism Theoretical approach that conceives of social systems as living organisms whose various parts work, or function, together to maintain essential processes Communication systems theory Theory that examines the mass communication process as composed of interrelated parts that work together to meet some goal Social cognitive theory Theory of learning through interaction with the environment that involves reciprocal causation of behavior, personal factors, and environmental events THEORIES OF THE MIDDLE RANGE AND THE FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS APPROACH Merton (1967, p. 68) described middle-range theory as follows: Middle-range theories consist of limited sets of assumptions from which specific hypotheses are logically derived and confirmed by empirical investigation. These theories do not remain separate but are consolidated into wider networks of theory. These theories are sufficiently abstract to deal with differing spheres of social behavior and social structure, so that they transcend sheer description […]

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Communication & International Communication

Communication & International Communication

Communication & International Communication 1. What is Communication? • The word communication has originated from a Latin word “Communes” which means something common. • Communication is a process of exchanging information, ideas, thoughts, feeling and emotions through speech signals, writing or behavior. • In communication process, a sender encodes a message and then using a medium and send it to appropriate feedback using a medium 3. Importance of Communication • Express thoughts, ideas and feelings • Creating awareness • To fulfill a goal • Highlight issues • Progress, development • Educating the masses etc. 4. Process of Communication 5. Types of Communication • People communicate with each other in a number of ways that depend upon the message and its context in which it is being sent. • Types of communication based on the communication channels used are – • Verbal Communication • Nonverbal Communication 6. Nonverbal Communication • Nonverbal […]

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Research , Importance of Research, Aims and Motives

Why Research? Importance of Research. Aims and Motives of social research. What Is Research? Research comprises “creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.” It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories. A research project may also be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects, or the project as a whole. The primary purposes of basic research (as opposed to applied research) are documentation, discovery, interpretation, or the research and development (R&D) of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies, which vary considerably both within and between humanities and sciences. There are several forms of […]

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Various Steps involved in evaluating a Development Support Communication Campaign

Define evaluation and explain various steps involved in evaluating a DSC Campaign. Evaluation Words themselves do not carry the same meanings through time and space. A word which gave a specific meaning a hundred years ago may not give the same meanings today – for scores of reasons. Similarly meanings of same words are changed at some distance. A verbal message which once stood for certain meanings, may not always stand for the same meanings because static meaning evaluation does not hold in any language. Various steps involved in evaluating a DSC Campaign The term can be described as development planning and implementation in which adequate action is taken of human behavioral factors in the design of development project and their objectivities. It addresses development planning and the plan of operation for implementation. It (DSC) stands for linking all agencies involved in the planned development works such as political executives, […]

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M Phil Mass Communication from AIOU

M Phil Mass Communication from Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad Schedule for submission of Admission Form with Rs.500 Processing Fee: 01-08-2014 to 05-09-2014. Schedule for submission of Admission Form with Rs.1000 Processing Fee: 05-09-2014 to 15-09-2014.  Admission Form with Rs.1500 Processing Fee: 15-09-2014 to 25-09-2014. DEPARTMENT OF MASS COMMUNICATION Introduction The Department of Mass Communication was established in 1986 for fulfilling the educational needs of students and for working journalists and media persons at various levels. The Department offered its specialized B.A cluster programme in Mass Communication in 1988 for the first time in the country at graduate level. Students across the country are taking interest in the programme. In 1997 the Department started its M Sc. Mass Communication Programme. Keeping in view the trend of students in studying the phenomenon of Mass Communication, the Department launched advanced studies of M Phil in Mass Communication in 2000. The M Phil imparts the knowledge of evolution and advances in mass […]

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What is the procedure of Mass Communication Internship?

MSc. Mass Communication Intern-ship Procedure 1. You may Apply for the Mass Communication Internship Letter after 3rd Semester Exam Passed. 2. Write an Application to the Mass Communication Department and make a request to issue an Internship Letter to complete mandatory part of the MSc. Mass Communication. Preview of the Request Letter. —————————————— The Department of Mass Communication, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad, Pakistan Subject:          Request for an internship Letter of MSc. Mass Communication With most respectfully, it is stated that I the applicant has completed my 3 Semester and Final Semester result is waiting from AIOU Islamabad. Now i request to you, that kindly send me the internship letter, so that  complete mandatory part of the MSc. Mass Communication on time.   Your’s sincerely, Applicant Name Roll# Reg# 3.After above application the department will send you following letter and evaluation-performa. 4. After receiving of an official internship letter, […]

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Sub Editor Qualifications & Functions of Sub editor

Sub Editor Qulaifications & Functions of Sub editor

Sub Editor  A sub editor receives a large number of news from news agencies, reporters and correspondents. He also receives press releases and handouts. He cannot publish all those news. Therefore, he selects important and interesting news reports. After selection he edits the news properly. The function of revising and editing is called sub-editing or subbing. Sub-editor is called the backbone of a newspaper due to his most important job. To present a news in an accurate and adequate way is the need of a good newspaper. This is sub-editor who performs this job. During editing of the news he also keeps in mind the laws of libel and defamation. He deletes all objectionable and surplus publicity material from news stories and publishes only newsworthy materials. During sub-editing the extra and repeated parts-of the news are killed down. The most important job of a sub-editor is to prepare headlines of […]

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