Communication & International Communication
1. What is Communication? • The word communication has originated from a Latin word “Communes” which means something common. • Communication is a process of exchanging information, ideas, thoughts, feeling and emotions through speech signals, writing or behavior. • In communication process, a sender encodes a message and then using a medium and send it to appropriate feedback using a medium
3. Importance of Communication • Express thoughts, ideas and feelings • Creating awareness • To fulfill a goal • Highlight issues • Progress, development • Educating the masses etc.
4. Process of Communication
5. Types of Communication • People communicate with each other in a number of ways that depend upon the message and its context in which it is being sent. • Types of communication based on the communication channels used are – • Verbal Communication • Nonverbal Communication
6. Nonverbal Communication • Nonverbal communication involves those nonverbal stimuli in a communication setting that are generated by both the source [speaker] and his or her use of the environment and that have potential message value for the source or receiver [listener] (Samovar et al). • Basically it is sending and receiving messages in a variety of ways without the use of verbal codes (words). • It is both intentional and unintentional. • Most speakers / listeners are not conscious of this.
7. Verbal Communication • Verbal communication is refers to the form of communication in which message is transmitted verbally, communication is done by word, mouth and a piece of writing. Objective of every communication is to have people understood what we are trying to convey. • Verbal Communication • Oral Communication • Written Communication
8. Oral Communication • In oral communication, spoken words are used. • It includes face-to-face conversations, speech, telephonic conversation, video, radio, television, voice over internet. In oral communication, communication is influence by pitch, volume, speed and clarity of speaking.
9. Written Communication • In written communication, written signs or symbols are used to communicate. • A written message may be printed or hand written. In written communication message can be transmitted via email, letter, report, memo etc. • Message, in written communication, is influenced by the vocabulary & grammar used, writing style, precision and clarity of the language used.
10. Levels of Communication • Scholars categorize different levels and types of communication. These distinctions are somewhat artificial, since types of communication more realistically fit on a continuum rather than in separate categories. Nevertheless, to understand the various types of communication, it is helpful to consider various factors. The distinguishing characteristics include the following: • Number of communicators (one through many). • Physical proximity of the communicators in relation to each other (close or distant). • Immediacy of the exchange, whether it is taking place either live or in apparently real time or on a delayed basis. • Number of sensory channels (including visual, auditory, tactile and so on). • The context of the communication (whether face-to-face or mediated). • Levels of communication can be categorized in four: • Intrapersonal Communication • Interpersonal Communication • Group Communication • Mass Communication • International Communication
11. Intrapersonal communication • Intrapersonal communication is a process in which people communicate with themselves either consciously or unconsciously • Intrapersonal Communication is communication that occurs in your own mind. It is the basis of your feelings, biases, prejudices, and beliefs. • Examples are when you make any kind of decision – what to eat or wear. When you think about something – what you want to do on the weekend or when you think about another person.
12. Interpersonal Communication • Communication between two people called interpersonal communication. • Interpersonal communication is the communication between two people but can involve more in informal conversations. • Examples are when you are talking to your friends. A teacher and student discussing an assignment. A patient and a doctor discussing a treatment. A manager and a potential employee during an interview.
13. Group Communication • Small Group communication is communication within formal or informal groups or teams. It is group interaction that results in decision making, problem solving and discussion within an organization. • Examples would be a group planning a surprise birthday party for someone. A team working together on a project.
14. Mass Communication • Communication through electronic gadgets (mass media) like books, journals, TV, newspapers etc. • Mass communication is the electronic or print transmission of messages to the general public. Outlets called mass media include things like radio, television, film, and printed materials designed to reach large audiences. • A television commercial. A magazine article. Hearing a song on the radio. Books, newspapers, billboards. The key is that you are reaching a large amount of people without it being face to face. Feedback is generally delayed with mass communication.
15. International Communication • The phenomenon of global communication as we know it today is essentially the result of technological advancements. It probably started with the development of advanced transport technology such as the steam engine and the internal combustion engine. • Currently it is primarily driven by the worldwide proliferation of advanced information and communication technologies (ICTs)
16. Classic Understanding • Involves or is carried across or takes place between two or more nation-states • Interactions between and among nation-states • International relations • Traditionally been associated with inter-state and inter- governmental interactions • Diplomacy and government propaganda in which powerful states dictate the communication agenda
17. Expansion of the Scope of IC • Communication across national borders has expanded to a large diversity of business-to-business and people-to-people interactions at a global level. • Not only the representatives of nation-states, but also a variety of non-state actors such as international non- governmental bodies, social movements as well as ordinary individuals are increasingly shaping the nature of transnational communication. • Communication between nation-states, institutions, groups and individuals across national, geographical and cultural borders
18. Definition of IC • Thussu defines international communication simply as communication that occurs across international borders. • Words, acts or attitudes can be depicted as international communication whenever they impinge – intentionally or unintentionally – upon the minds of private individuals, officials or groups from other countries (Massachusett’s Institute’s Center for International Studies). • International communication is an extremely broad field involving social conditions, attitudes and institutions that have an effect on the production and/or reception of various forms of communication among people. • It recognises not only the media and technologies through which impulses pass, but also the attitudes and social circumstances of the sources, the predisposition of receivers as well as the effects and impact of the contents.
19. Communication Technologies • Global connectedness was enhanced by the development of ICTs such as the telegraph and telephone; the laying of submarine cables between Europe and the USA; the expansion of railroads and the development of modern navigation with the help of newly developed radio technology. • This period also saw the growth of the major international news agencies in Europe and the United States • The period was furthermore characterised by the hegemony of the great European powers that used the developing communication technologies, media and international news agencies not only to enhance their powers globally and to acquire colonies and manage empires, but also to foster Westernisation and Europeanisation around the world.
20. Importance of Public Opinion • The great world powers also started to realise the impact of and importance of public opinion and the value of propaganda especially in wartimes as well as the potential of the developing media such as the radio in this regard. The spread of contending ideologies such as liberalism, communism, fascism and a number of Islamic movements furthermore led to the increasing usage of the fast developing media, the press and communication technologies to organize the transnational activities of revolutionary movements. • However, it was in the period after World War II that the growth of global communication really accelerated (Mowlana 1996). This acceleration was firstly driven by the continued development and expansion of media such as television and, most importantly, the rapid development, improvement and widespread proliferation of ICTs such as satellites and computers.
21. Democracy and Media • The rise of democracy and the attainment of independence by many former colonies of the great European powers also led to an increase in the number of nation-states who participated in the political, cultural and socio-economic aspects of international communication (Mowlana 1996). During this period the USA emerged as the dominant political power and increasingly employed the media as well as ICTs not only for the purposes of economic and military domination, but also economically and culturally.
22. International Communication • The acceleration of international conferences; the international expansion of educational institutions, congresses and seminars; the exchange of students between countries; the popularization of international travel; and the expansion of international sport furthermore increased contact and communication between the peoples of the world. • In this competitive world with its revolving economic and communication giants, the globe has been transformed into a global electronic village and information has emerged as a primary commodity and resource. • The conclusion can be drawn that global communication is in a continuous state of ferment and evolution .
23. Effects of Global Communication • The borders of nation-states have become porous as the globalisation of technology has made it virtually impossible for governments to regulate and control the transborder flow of information and communication. • Global media systems have furthermore introduced propaganda and public diplomacy as important factors in international relations. • Global communication is radically redefining the nature of both hard and soft power in international relations.
24. McLuhan’s(1964) notionof theglobalvillage • Socially, integrated global communication networks has to a certain extent resulted in the realisation of McLuhan’s (1964) notion of the global village with the emergence of, among others, global interconnectedness, global consciousness and global co-operation between NGOs in widely different areas such as human rights, women’s rights and environmental protection. Social relations are no longer restricted to a particular space or locality, but are dispersed globally and spatially as ICTs create and maintain social relations irrespective of time and space.
25. Global Digital Telecommunication • However, one of the most important consequences is probably the blurring of the boundaries between technological, economic, political, social and cultural domains . • Both traditional media (eg print, photography, film, radio, television and videos) as well as the fast developing new information and communication technologies (ICTs) (eg telephone and telegraphy, satellites and computers) that have initially developed fairly independently, are merging into a global digital telecommunications network.