Describe different kinds of advertising. Explain with examples.
Kinds of Advertising:
Advertising includes those activities by which visual or oral messages are addressed to the public for the purpose of informing and influencing them to buy merchandise or services. These activities of advertising must tell the story of product, service, idea, person etc. Its basic appeal may be the same, but the shades and variations of the sales message must match the variety of merchandise. These different shades and variations of the message are actually different kinds of advertising. So, classification of kinds of advertising are established in accordance with the purpose of writers. Advertising can be classified from different angles, such as according to media, type of product, service, idea, institution, type of appeal; character of action sought, and so on. Different kinds of advertising with variety of appeals and messages are used to push the product ahead in its journey.
Following are the various types of advertising:
- National Advertising
National advertising refers chiefly to advertising done by a producer to get people to buy his/her branded goods, wherever they are sold.
The term national advertising has a special meaning. It is the advertising advertised directly to consumers urging them to buy and consume the product. National advertising, as the term is commonly used, refers not to the extent of the advertising, but to its purpose, which is to leave the consumer favourably disposed towards buying the product.
The national advertiser has chiefly one product to sell over a period of time. The term “National Advertising” is usually used to designate the type of advertising which is done by a manufacturer on a nationwide scale to stimulate demand for his/her product among ultimate consumers.
As national advertiser speaks to a wide and distant audience, therefore it is difficult to trace the sales effects of a single insertion of an advertisement. It could be possible if it seems exclusively one medium.
- Regional and Local Advertising
Regional advertising is confined to one region of the country. When a product is available and consumed on regional level, the advertisement of such product takes place on regional level. Regional advertising may come from the manufacturer, the wholesaler or the retailer.
Similarly local advertising is confined to one trading area or city, and usually is considered to be synonymous with the term “retail advertising”.
The advertising, familiar to all citizens of the country done by the departmental store in the city or trading area through the local daily newspaper or on the local radio s station is local advertising. The product or service which is available on local level and is
Also in general consumption of local consumers can be advertised on local level. The advertising may in fact be promoting the sale of nationally advertised brands of merchandise, But the stress is on the concept that the reader is to come and buy that brand in the advertisers store rather than in some competitive store. Or the local advertiser may be attempting to induce the consumer to patronize his/her particular store and may not advertise any manufacturer’s brands of merchandise.
- Retail Advertising
Retail advertising conveys the message of the local merchants or service organizations. Retail advertising is addressed directly to consumers. It is the advertisement of merchant or dealer that is designed to induce the consumer to visit and buy at his/her store. Chief among the retail advertisers are departmental stores, discount stores and super markets etc. The retail advertiser wishes to sell his product within a week, generating a great sense of urgency in the advertising department.
Retail and national advertising differ in many ways, because the retailer works in
a more restricted geographic market than does the national advertiser. This proximity to the market means that the retailer’s message can be closer to the likes, preferences, prejudices, and purchasing habits of the intended customers.
The retailer’s need for advertising can be explained as:
- It does a selling job for the inefficient retailer
- It gives the retailer a local personality
- Advertising gives him/her a quick turnover.
The purposes of retail advertising include to co-operate actively with the community, to explain any interruption in service or shortage of merchandise, to explain and build store policies or services and personality.
- Trade and professional Advertising
Trade and professional advertising is directed at wholesalers or retailers and professional people.
Manufacturers use trade advertising to persuade retailers to stock their products, to feature them in their stores, and to “tie in” with national advertising campaigns in their retail advertisements. Retailers stock those items that customers will buy. But as retailers are in short of funds, they usually stock those items in limited shelf space. Therefore ‘retailers must be convinced that stocking the products of individual manufacturers is to their advantage.
Trade advertising may also be directed to the operators of service establishment. Some advertising placed in mass consumer media may be directed to retailer or other special groups in order to get the attention of the retailer, industrial user, or professional person when in a relaxed mood. Just as trade advertising is addressed not to the consumer of the product advertised, but to the retailer who is to sell that product to the consumer, similarly the professional advertising is directed by the maker or seller of a product to someone who can either recommend its use to others or who specifies or buys its for use by those whom he/she advises. Manufacturers advertise to physicians, dentists and architects, not expecting the physician or dentist or architect to consume the product personally, but hoping that he/she will prescribe, recommend, or specify it to those who will buy it on his/her recommendation.
Professional advertising in many ways is similar to trade advertising, except that the professional does not buy goods for the purpose of reselling them to clients, his/her role is to prescribe or recommend to the client the purchase of certain products. Personal selling also is very important in reaching professional people. Manufacturer’s sales representatives go out into the field and talk about company’s products to the professional persons.
Advertisements in professional journals tell how the client of the reader can benefit from the use of the product.
- Industrial Advertising
A vast array of items, including machinery, equipment, raw and finished materials, semi processed materials, parts and operating supplies are used by manufacturers and other producers to facilitate the performance of their basic productive function. The manufacturers of industrial goods wish to see that their products are bought by other producers, and they are not concerned with securing retail distribution.
Industrial advertising speaks to engineers and other technically trained people in their respective fields. And this kind of advertising addressed to the men responsible for purchasing goods needed to make products and render services is known as industrial advertising. Such advertising is designed to reach purchasing agents, plant managers, engineers, controllers and others who have a voice in spending the industry’s/firm’s money for material and equipment.
Personal selling is significantly more important in the distribution of industrial goods than in the case of consumer products. As prospective buyers are fewer; they tend to be in concentrated geographic locations, and their average purchase is considerably larger. Advertising is used to speed up the sales of industrial products, to reduce the costs of personal sales efforts, and to improve sales effectiveness.
There are many industrial publications containing different industrial advertisements which are designed to reach the persons who make purchasing decisions for the production of goods by business enterprises. These decision makers read industrial advertisements with critical verbosity. They are looking for news of products and experiences relevant to their problem and solution expressed in specific and factual form. Industrial advertising adheres closely to the copy structure having elements of promise of benefit, amplification, proof and action. Industrial advertising is usually handled through agencies that specialize in the field, or who have people with training or experience in the sciences, engineering, chemistry, or in writing about these subjects. Such agencies are usually equipped to handle all phases of an industrial advertiser’s promotion needs, including advertising, publicity, brochures, and manuals with the basic purpose of announcing new products, informing about product features, obtaining sales leads and announcing changes in price etc.
- Institutional and Public Service Advertising
Institutional and public service advertising is not aimed at promoting sale and consumption of products and services. These two kinds of advertisings are done to create goodwill, better understanding and good reputation of any institution, organization etc. :n order > gain, establish and retain a favourable response in respect of some idea, movement, campaign or person. Generally public service advertisements appear to invite the attention of general masses towards some specific organization, establishment or campaign for the betterment of humanbeings.
Institutional advertising is designed to give the whole store a lift in the esteem of the public, over and above its reputation for good merchandise. It may be designed to help me community project or through it the store may be trying to bring pride to the . community. Institutional advertising, as a rule, is a one-shot advertisement, created only when there is something to say, or it may be a series of occasional advertisements devoted overall theme. Generally the institutional advertising sells only the name and prestige of the company. This goodwill advertising is used frequently by large campaigns with divisions, whose various products are well known.
Public service advertising is a public relations approach advertising. Any organization may present its view point and services about a national cause, say, prevention of blindness and the efforts it has made to promote that cause. This kind of advertising aims at the social welfare of a community or a nation and at times appears as an appeal for raising funds to help some needy section of the community.
- Direct-Response Advertising
Direct-response advertising is designed for direct marketing of products. The seller sells the products or services directly to the end user, without reaching to a retailer or dealer. It includes in-home selling, mail-order selling, catalogue selling.
This kind of advertising includes any advertising that calls for the readers’ prompt response to the advertisement, with his/her name and address. Typical uses of direct- response advertising are:
- selling merchandise or a service directly;
- soliciting inquiries that will be followed up at home or in the office by a salesman or by mail;
- soliciting requests for a catalogue;
- selling subscriptions or enrolling members in a club, i.e., book, magazine or record club. Direct-response advertising uses a great variety of media such as newspapers, magazines, television radio, paperback books and direct mail.
Mail-order advertising and direct-mail advertising are two further types of direct- response advertising. In both these types the advertiser uses most of the media employed by national advertisers, but the way they use the media may be different in many respects, something the direct-response advertiser has to keep in mind while doing this kind of advertising.
In direct-response advertising, the advertiser asks the reader to act now, to send in the coupon or order card right now, because if he/she does not do it before turning over the page or before throwing the mail away, the advertisement is considered a loss.
This kind of advertising abounds in devices designed to stimulate the reader to
action. Free trial offers, special tokens to be inserted in order cards, bargaining trial
subscription to magazines, reduced-price prepublication book offers, extra gifts or
merchandise for immediate orders; there are some of the tools of getting coupons back in
- End-Product and Service Advertising
End-product advertising is aimed at promoting the sale of such products which cannot be used directly. It is the advertising process of such products which can help in the smooth and efficient functioning of other equipment’s in the industrial organizations or in houses, such as stabilizers, regulators, electric motors, pumps, wire, batteries etc.
In end-product piece of advertisement there is guarantee for durability and perfect functioning and results of original product when end-product is installed with them.
End-product advertising is the process of a manufacturer’s advertising to the end users of his/her product, rather than to those to whom he/she sells.
Service advertising is designed to promote the personalized services like laundry, hair-grooming, tailoring, painting and designing, automobiles repairing, servicing and repairing of electrical goods. Service advertising, places greater emphasis on the institution offering it and the advantages in patronizing them. They may talk about congenial environment, promptness of service, economy, exclusiveness, status significance, etc. when luxury hotels and airlines, advertise their services, their important attractions including smiles, courtesy and claims of offering a home away from home. Without advertising the services of an institution no producer can attract any customer and no consumer can avail the offered services.