Explain the general objectives of advertising after explaining different definitions of advertising.
Advertising is an art of the seller in which he introduces ideas, goods and services for the buyer through the media of mass communication. Advertising is many things to many people; to a house wife, it is a source of information to guide her for family purpose; to a forest ranger, it is a smoky hear; to a printer and publisher it is what to pay for printing; and for a manufacturer it is a means of talking simultaneously with hundred and thousand people. Advertising plays a vital role in the economical structure of a society. As part of our social life, advertising greatly affects our lifestyle. Advertisement is a vital marketing tool as well as powerful communication force calling something for attention of the people, especially by paid announcements.
Definition of Advertising
Different experts. Have defined advertising differently. Some of definitions are presented below:
- Advertising is a powerful communication and vital tool helping to sell goods, ideas and services through the channel and persuasion.
- Advertising is people’s .communication with other people in which one group supplies the needs and desires of the other group.
- Advertising is a sort of communication from a man, who has an idea, tp a man who can bo-influe nced to accept such idea.
- Advertising is paid-torm communication which tends to influence some or more- people.
- Advertising provides the kind of information the customer needs to make a buying decision.
- Advertising is a controlled and identified information and persuasion by means of mass communication media.
- Advertising is the art of telling whole lie out of the half-truth.
- Advertising is more than a tool to accelerate the distribution of goods.
- Advertising is the spokesman of a business man.
- Advertising is a gift behind the price.
- Advertising is a salesman in print.
- S. Chandan, Jagjit Singh and P. N. Malhan in the book entitled “Essentials of Advertising” have formulated the following definition of Advertising:
Advertising is any controlled lrom of non-personal presentation and promotion . ideas, goods and services by an identified sponsor, that is used to inform and persuade the selected market”
Explanation of the definition:
Paid Form: Paid form is necessary to distinguish advertising from publicity or public relations. A positive news story about a product is not considered advertising. “Paid form” also becomes “controlled form”, because the advertiser can exercise control over the content of the massage as well as the manner in which it is to be placed. An exception to this rule is public service campaign or free and donated advertising space by some non-profit organizations. Advertisement placed by the Army or Boy Scouts may be controlled rut not paid for and still be considered as advertisement.
Non-Personal presentation: Advertising is non-personal as against face to face personal selling. It is meant to reach and communicate with a mass market in the least expensive way. Personal selling is extremely costly. While the advertising message may give an impression of a personal appeal, it rs still considered as non-personal.
Ideas, Goods or Services: While most advertising is still confined to promote tangible and physical goods, it is also being extensively used for service oriented outlets,
like banks, restaurants, airlines and insurance companies. Public service oriented and non- it organizations are not involved in promotion of goods and services but only in r popularizing ideas about the necessity and usefulness of their existence and why public help is important for example, the Red Cross is quite often advertised.
An Identified Sponsor: This is meant to differentiate between advertising and propaganda. Both propaganda and advertising are meant to influence the opinion and behaviour of the receiver of the message. But propaganda, without an identiable sponsor would not connect the message with the originator of the message, thus making the evaluation of the message difficult. As much of the quality of the product or services is dated with the name and the image of the company, an advertisement without an identified sponsor would not serve its purpose and thus be a wasteful expenditure.
inform and Persuade: Before a consumer can be persuaded to buy a product, he must become aware of it. Advertising must inform the potential customer about a new product or a new use of a product or about a breakthrough in a certain technology. Persuasion is the most important aspect of promotion and advertising. According to Clyde R. Miller, “All successes in business, in industrial product, in invention, in religious conversion, in education and in politics depend upon the process of persuasion” Persuasion must change or reinforce an attitude or behaviour in one form or another. However, care must be taken as to the extent of persuasion so that it does not become misleading or wrong.
Selected Market: For advertising to be effective, it must reach potential consumers. Advertisers must prepare their ads and select their media with an eye to influencing the selected market. For example an advertisement for a tractor would not be very useful, if placed in the “Times” magazine which is primarily read by the urban elite. The advertisement for the Rolex watch is intended to appeal to the financially elite. Afrosheen is mean to be marketed to an ethnic market. Unless the market is segmented, the advertising will not have its optimum effect.
Objectives of Advertising:
Detail information is given to prospective buyers in respect of particular product or service through advertising.
- To Remind the public
Advertisement reminds the public about the existence of products in the market. It is a continuous process of persuading the prospective customers which the by results in purchase of goods.
- To change social attitude
Attempts are made to change the social attitude by advertising in order to sell products never sold before. So it facilitates to create market attitude in a public.
- To induce the public
It aims to induce the public to purchase advertised products as against competing products.
- To convince customers for direct purchase
Mail order business may be made popular by advertising. Under this arrangement, the buyers get goods through the post office. No personal contact is made between the buyers and sellers. So it convinces customers for direct purchase.
- To encourage salesman
Salesman generally finds ready buyers at his business centre which are convinced by advertising. So it assists the Salesman greatly and he has not to face any problem in realizing the goods.
Types of advertising
Virtually any medium can be used for advertising. Commercial advertising media can include wall paintings, billboards, street furniture components, printed flyers and rack cards, radio, cinema and television adverts, web banners, mobile telephone screens, shopping carts, web popups, skywriting, bus stop benches, human billboards and forehead advertising, magazines, newspapers, town criers, sides of buses, banners attached to or sides of airplanes (“logojets”), in-flight advertisements on seatback tray tables or overhead storage bins, taxicab doors, roof mounts and passenger screens, musical stage shows, subway platforms and trains, elastic bands on disposable diapers, doors of bathroom stalls, stickers on apples in supermarkets, shopping cart handles (grabertising), the opening section of streaming audio and video, posters, and the backs of event tickets and supermarket receipts. Any place an “identified” sponsor pays to deliver their message through a medium is advertising.
Television advertising / Music in advertising
The TV commercial is generally considered the most effective mass-market advertising format, as is reflected by the high prices TV networks charge for commercial airtime during popular TV events. The annual Super Bowl football game in the United States is known as the most prominent advertising event on television. The average cost of a single thirty-second TV spot during this game has reached US$3.5 million (as of 2012). Some television commercials feature a song or jingle that listeners soon relate to the product. Virtual advertisements may be inserted into regular television programming through computer graphics. It is typically inserted into otherwise blank backdrops or used to replace local billboards that are not relevant to the remote broadcast audience. More controversially, virtual billboards may be inserted into the background where none exist in real-life. This technique is especially used in televised sporting events. Virtual product placement is also possible.
An infomercial is a long-format television commercial, typically five minutes or longer. The word “infomercial” is a portmanteau of the words “information” & “commercial”. The main objective in an infomercial is to create an impulse purchase, so that the consumer sees the presentation and then immediately buys the product through the advertised toll-free telephone number or website. Infomercials describe, display, and often demonstrate products and their features, and commonly have testimonials from consumers and industry professionals.
Radio advertising is a form of advertising via the medium of radio. Radio advertisements are broadcast as radio waves to the air from a transmitter to an antenna and a thus to a receiving device. Airtime is purchased from a station or network in exchange for airing the commercials. While radio has the limitation of being restricted to sound, proponents of radio advertising often cite this as an advantage. Radio is an expanding medium that can be found not only on air, but also online. According to Arbitron, radio has approximately 241.6 million weekly listeners, or more than 93 percent of the U.S. population.
Online advertising is a form of promotion that uses the Internet and World Wide Web for the expressed purpose of delivering marketing messages to attract customers. Online ads are delivered by an ad server. Examples of online advertising include contextual ads that appear on search engine results pages, banner ads, in text ads, Rich Media Ads, Social network advertising, online classified advertising, advertising networks and e-mail marketing, including e-mail spam.
Covert advertising, also known as guerrilla advertising, is when a product or brand is embedded in entertainment and media. For example, in a film, the main character can use an item or other of a definite brand, as in the movie Minority Report, where Tom Cruise’s character John Anderton owns a phone with the Nokia logo clearly written in the top corner, or his watch engraved with the Bulgari logo. Another example of advertising in film is in I, Robot, where main character played by Will Smith mentions his Converse shoes several times, calling them “classics,” because the film is set far in the future. I, Robot and Spaceballs also showcase futuristic cars with the Audi and Mercedes-Benz logos clearly displayed on the front of the vehicles. Cadillac chose to advertise in the movie The Matrix Reloaded, which as a result contained many scenes in which Cadillac cars were used. Similarly, product placement for Omega Watches, Ford, VAIO, BMW and Aston Martin cars are featured in recent James Bond films, most notably Casino Royale. In “Fantastic Four: Rise of the Silver Surfer”, the main transport vehicle shows a large Dodge logo on the front. Blade Runner includes some of the most obvious product placement; the whole film stops to show a Coca-Cola billboard.
Press advertising describes advertising in a printed medium such as a newspaper, magazine, or trade journal. This encompasses everything from media with a very broad readership base, such as a major national newspaper or magazine, to more narrowly targeted media such as local newspapers and trade journals on very specialized topics. A form of press advertising is classified advertising, which allows private individuals or companies to purchase a small, narrowly targeted ad for a low fee advertising a product or service. Another form of press advertising is the Display Ad, which is a larger ad (can include art) that typically run in an article section of a newspaper.
Billboards are large structures located in public places which display advertisements to passing pedestrians and motorists. Most often, they are located on main roads with a large amount of passing motor and pedestrian traffic; however, they can be placed in any location with large amounts of viewers, such as on mass transit vehicles and in stations, in shopping malls or office buildings, and in stadiums.
The RedEye newspaper advertised to its target market at North Avenue Beach with a sailboat billboard on Lake Michigan.
Mobile billboard advertising
Mobile billboards are generally vehicle mounted billboards or digital screens. These can be on dedicated vehicles built solely for carrying advertisements along routes preselected by clients, they can also be specially equipped cargo trucks or, in some cases, large banners strewn from planes. The billboards are often lighted; some being backlit, and others employing spotlights. Some billboard displays are static, while others change; for example, continuously or periodically rotating among a set of advertisements. Mobile displays are used for various situations in metropolitan areas throughout the world, including: Target advertising, One-day, and long-term campaigns, Conventions, Sporting events, Store openings and similar promotional events, and Big advertisements from smaller companies.
In-store advertising is any advertisement placed in a retail store. It includes placement of a product in visible locations in a store, such as at eye level, at the ends of aisles and near checkout counters (aka POP—Point Of Purchase display), eye-catching displays promoting a specific product, and advertisements in such places as shopping carts and in-store video displays.
Coffee cup advertising
Coffee cup advertising is any advertisement placed upon a coffee cup that is distributed out of an office, café, or drive-through coffee shop. This form of advertising was first popularized in Australia, and has begun growing in popularity in the United States, India, and parts of the Middle East.
This type of advertising first came to prominence in the UK by Street Advertising Services to create outdoor advertising on street furniture and pavements. Working with products such as Reverse Graffiti, air dancer’s and 3D pavement advertising, the media became an affordable and effective tool for getting brand messages out into public spaces.
Sheltered Outdoor Advertising
This type of advertising opens the possibility of combining outdoor with indoor advertisement by placing large mobile, structures (tents) in public places on temporary bases. The large outer advertising space exerts a strong pull on the observer, the product is promoted indoor, where the creative decor can intensify the impression.
This type of advertising focuses upon using celebrity power, fame, money, popularity to gain recognition for their products and promote specific stores or products. Advertisers often advertise their products, for example, when celebrities share their favorite products or wear clothes by specific brands or designers. Celebrities are often involved in advertising campaigns such as television or print adverts to advertise specific or general products. The use of celebrities to endorse a brand can have its downsides, however. One mistake by a celebrity can be detrimental to the public relations of a brand. For example, following his performance of eight gold medals at the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing, China, swimmer Michael Phelps’ contract with Kellogg’s was terminated, as Kellogg’s did not want to associate with him after he was photographed smoking marijuana. Celebrities such as Britney Spears have advertised for multiple products including Pepsi, Candies from Kohl’s, Twister, NASCAR, Toyota and many more.