Radio drama is an adapted form of stage drama. The main difference between the stage and radio drama is that audiences of stage drama can see the performance of actors with full attention while radio drama is presented through sound alone.
It is the listener who develops the entire scenario in his imagination while listening to the dialogues from the radio set. This makes radio drama virtually a theatre of mind. While the avt va of stage drama are grouped in a building, radio drama ir transmitted from wire s? mass audience who are scattered and alone at homes. Voices at stage are unnaturally loud while on radio these are as normal as in ordinary life.
Glamour of television drama has affected the popularity of radio drama. However radio drama has some advantages over television drama which requires huge settings, costumes and finances. On radio big moves and changes in terms of place and time can easily be interpreted through the sounds. Radio writers as compared to television writers can create as many scenes involving different places as they derive. They can even move from earth to the space only with the help of dialogues or a sound effect. In this sense radio drama is not much expensive to present. ,
Nevertheless the very simplicity of. radio drama requires more imaginative and innovative writing and production techniques to produce a good radio drama. The only available tools are sounds and the skill to study different sounds (dialogues and effects) creating the required effect interpreting a particular dramatic situation and atmosphere.
Radio drama .like television drama can further he classified as serial, series and single plays hut even in a serial, an episode is ought to he a complete play in respects of its rising actions,, twists, climax and anticlimax etc. A strong story line, development of the plot into natural sciences, characterization, dialogues and sound effect and music are the main ingredients of a drama.
Dramas are used for various motives including entertainment, education, and social purposes like community development.
In the third world broadcasts including Pakistan, radio-drama is often used as a part of publicity and propaganda campaigns. Stories on such themes may have weak plots and predictable conclusions.
The term documentary is derived from French word “Documentaries” which means a “travel picture”. Documentary is defined as a programme which’ reproduces or interprets real life situations. Consider the ‘document” part within the title of this format which implies the presentation of facts and actuality reporting (the documents). Documentary is basically a programme which presents various aspects of topic, fact or subject objectively.
Because of narration of facts this format is also considered a “real radio”. Documentary is a creative form in which a given subject is treated using the- techniques of sound medium including voices of actual people, giving their experiences, real events and sounds of locations.
Documentaries are broadcast for general audiences covering a wide range of subjects that need investigation and have wide appeal. These can be informative and educative. Documentaries can comment on social conditions, present different
opinions of people and factual account.
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Another version of documentary is the latest production trend of “Documentary drama” which includes recreation of certain parts of the documentary in the studies using dramatic techniques. This is referred to as the fiction part of the documentary. Nevertheless this portion is only to help representing the facts. The contents of the information used through the “drama portion” is not “fiction” itself.
Your studies on documentary should include the production techniques and their impact and also the purposes where documentaries are useful. The broad range subjects of documentaries are:
i) Information, news and current affairs.
ii) Investigative topics such as political an*l social issues, historical events.” Here the documentary attempts to answer the journalistic queries of “who, what, when, how, why and where”. *
Music is a personal hobby, a performing art and an enjoyable recreation.
Music is holding an important place in the general broadcasting since the early days. Music fills a large part of all radio channels (except news channels.) Consequently music has taken the role of chief source of entertainment on radio. Importance of music can be viewed from the fact that radio is not considered complete without music and it is almost half side of radio. Entire production activities are seen in terms of either “spoken word” programmes or “music”.
If “spoken words” are vehicle to express thoughts, the music conveys feelings and light sentiments. Besides solo music or instrumental music, the combination of music and poetry is rather more popular. In fact the term “music” in daily usage means poetic rendering sung in harmony with the musical instruments.
It is said that the future of radio is associated with two things – current affairs and music. The broadcast stations keep pace and remain accommodative and flexible to promote new trends in music.
To watch the programmes with the mood of the listeners is an important motive of the broadcast planners. No doubt one of the most important functions of contemporary music is to reflect the mood and aspiration of the people of the time. The most successful music is the one that performs its job well.
Special Audience Programmes
Disc-jockeying (D.J.) programmes, popular all over the world, have a unique style of presenting music along with the chit chat in.a fast mood. A large audience mostly the youth find attraction in Disc-Jockey programmes. The Disc-Jockey style of western programmes have been adopted by Radio Pakistan in various “hourly chunks” putting together folk, light, pop and film music with small talking referred to as comparing.
You should continue to study the important aspects of musical programmes in terms of their popularity, basic features and effects on society.
Children programmes are planned and presented in accordance with the specific needs and mood of children as a special audience.
Programmes comprise such items that have special interest for children including stories, skits, introduction of children, specially composed musical items, talks and chit-chat.
Examples of children programmes from Radio Pakistan include: weekly composite children programme from all stations in Urdu as well as in regional languages, bed time stories. “Aye Quran Parhein” is also presented for children.
You should distinguish between programme exclusively meant of children of 5 to 12 years of age, pre-school children and curriculum based educational programmes, c
Special surveys, researches, production techniques, feed-back and evaluation are all necessary tools for the effectiveness of the programmes.
Womens’ programmes are special audience ,> . grammes.
It is almost an international trend to allot specific time for women listeners from all the broadcasting stations. ,
In third world countries including Pakistan, programmes for women have special motives which include: to rouse awareness about thcr rights and responsibiliies, improve the economic productivity of women folk, provide them entertainment through items of interest in
their own every day spoken languages and styles and to give educative messages.
Programmes are presented in friendly and sympathetic manner by the women comperes to create a sense of belonging among the women community.
Items of womens’ programmes include : news and its background explanation, music of women’s choice, interviews of working and prominent personalities, cookery, household, health beauty and nutrition, dress and fashion, business enterprises and community development.
Radio Pakistan has allotted exclusive time for the women listeners. Example include : weekly womens programmes from all station – ?n Urdu and regional languages.
Rural areas in third world countries are usually back w’atersh^: of civilization. In Pakistan, rural population is the back bone of our national economy, as it is responsible to promote the most important culture of the country – the Agriculture. Our socio economic conditions a¥e closely related to the rural community, the most productive population of the Country. in terms of food, other agricultural products and raw material. Radio Pakistan from its very inception :