ETHICS OF PHOTO JOURNALISM

Readers often perceive certain photographs as morally “good or bad” as shocking^ distasteful, or unnecessary intrusions into private lives. They often criticise photo journalists for shooting tragic or shocking pictures.
The history of photo journalism is filled with examples of photographs of sensational subjects, violent scenes or suffering. The photo journalists who shot these scenes acted instinctively on the obligation to report to public. Other photo journalists, who may have hesitated or backed away because of interference by others, or even owing to their own sensibilities, were simply not doing their job. The fact that photographs can often be shocking is part of the burden of being a photo journalist.
there are sime ethus of photo journalism which govern the conduct of photo jot. Midlists and a/so that of editors who decide finally about the fate of a picture i.e. to le published or discarded. In the Pakistani context, the following ethics of photo journalism are generally observed in newspapers.
I. Intrusion into people’s homes and private life is morally as well as legally not allowed. Photo journalists are no exception. However, if people are breaching the law of the state or are doing immoral activities in their homes and privaf* photo journalist can take their pictures and publish it. Even such photos are regarded as an achievement of the photographer.
2 Journalism gives top priority to ‘public good’. Hence, pictures which cause distress to the readers should be avoided. For instance, photographs of horrific accidents and other shock pictures.
I)             Publication of obscene pictures should be avoided.
I)             Photo journalist should not transgress norms and traditions of the society while performing his duty. He should not print photos which are against the local norms and traditions.
I)             Pictures should not be retouched to misrepresent people or situations.
f>. Picture should not present a villain as a hero.
Libel is a false and defamatory statement or expression in some permanent form which tends to injure the reputation of a person without legal justification. So. a picture should also not tend to injure the reputation of a person without legal justification. However there are certain defences against libel and in such situations the news photographer is allowed to take and publish pictures.
Picture of a news worthy event may be damaging for one’s reputation but if it does not invade the legal boundary and it is in the interest of the society, it can and must be published.
KINDS OF JOURNALISTIC PHOTOS
Following are the most common kinds of journalistic photos:-
News Events Pictures
Pictures of this kind relate to events of hard news stories, such as accidents, murder or any other tragedy etc.
General News Pictures
Pictures of events that have already been scheduled such as press conference, 23rd March event, etc.
Feature Pictures
Feature story accommodates many pictures so as to provide maximum entertainment to the readers. Feature pictures are close to life and nature. The scope of feature pictures is very vast. These include children, women, old people, animals, birds, buildings, mountains and seas, etc.
Sports Pictures
In photo journalism, sports pictures hold a unique position. Sports news without pictures are incomplete. Sports pictures present action and style which usually become the sole constituent of the news.
News worthy personality pictures are usually published in newspapers and magazines. While taking pictures of a news worthy personality, photographer must concentrate on the specific impression of the personality so that the audience can understand him/her immediately.
Sources of pictures are given below:-
Staff photographers are the main source of exclusive pictures and have the advantage that they can be more easily deployed alongside reporters on jobs whereon the spot pictures are wanted.
Press photographers are journalists by training and definition, and their approach and job briefing are in line with that for reporters.
Staff pictures become the newspaper’s copyright, and syndication or reproduction fees are earned if they are used in other publications.
Staff photographers, even when working alongside reporters, are expected to be responsible for their own caption material and facts and name checking.
There are many freelance press photographers working in a variety of fields. Some are heavily specialized into such things as glamour, fashion and industrial photography. They might be employed on particular assignments or might be engaged on day-to-day or week-to-week arrangements. Most freelancers are engaged because of their special experience or reliability in certain types of work* Exclusiveness of work depends on the rights bought Or the type of contract.
Picture agfencies provide a great range of pictures to subscribing newspapers. Some agencies have specialities such as sports, political or celebrity portraitures.
Pictures
PROs or press officers provide pictures to media free because of the publicity value to the owners or subjects.
Picture Library
The office picture files going back in some cases as many as thirty years, are an important source of stock pictures for flashback use 01 for head or mug shots of politicians, sportsmen and other well known people.
2.6 C RITERIA OF GOOD PICTURES
The newsman has to consider two things while publishing a photograph :- (I) Technical value of the picture (2) Edit01i.1l value of the picture.
Good picture depends upon the purpose ioi lure ic.-,’ vu! ,r> for news Following are the criteria which make a picture good for 1 news ^
Technical Considerations

1.
Proper Focus
2.
Effective contrast and lighting.
j.
Suitability for reproduction.
4.
Adequate exposure.
5.
Correct development.
6.
Effective printing.

Composition Consideration

1.
Proper Balance
2.
Eye Movement.
3.
Grouping
4.
Effective Grouping
5.
Focal Point
6.
Formal and Informal Need

Effective Picture Communication
1.    It should create interest in the news.
2.            It should convey the information better than words.
3.            it should be easy to read.
4.            It should please the viewers.
5.            It should be purpose based.
2. PICTURE APPEAL
Following pictures appeal to the viewer:-

1.
Fear.
2.
Animal
3.
Children
4
Sex
5.
Beauty
6.
Sports
7.
Sympathy
8
Personalities
9.
Struggle (both physical and mental).

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