Historical Development of Television
Television is the result of technological developments of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Television net work began in the 1930s, Rapid growth of programming came about following World War-II.
Having in two decades – the 1930s and 1940s – emerged from experimental beginnings to become a fixture in Britain and the United States, it would, in two more decades, bacome a World medium.
Developments came with startling speed. Industrial nations that had participated in pre-war experiments could be expected to make early starts in postwar television; they included Japan, Canada, Australia, and a number of European • nations. Less expected was a burst of activity from other nations.
In Latin America, Mexico, Cuba, and Brazil led the way, all launching . television operations in 1950. They were followed repidly by others. By the end of that decade eighteen Latin American nations had some form of television, with more on the verge. Asia virtually kept pace, with the Philippines starting in 1953. By the mid-1960s eighteen Asian nations including Pakistan, had entered the television age; others were planning to follow. Africa was not far behind. Algeria began in 1965, Egypt in 1960. By the end of the 1960s fifteen African nations had made a start in television. Half the world’s nations had by now joined the procession.
Pakistan’s first pilot Television Station went on air from Lahore on 26th November, 1964. Now Pakistan Television has two channels called as PTV and PTV-2.
The idea to establish television in the country was supported by the report of the commission on National Education set up by the Ayub government in 1958. The commission concluded that television was necessary for educational, economic and social set-up of the country. Interestingly the major emphasis was on education^and hence the television was introduced in the name of education, Initially television was set up with the help of UNESCO, Columbo plan and Japanees government.
The Japanees report submitted in 1962 urged that television should be introduced as a general purpose service and also cater to the educational needs of the masses.
Funding was a matter of concern for a poor country like Pakistan to meet the graving cost of television broadcasting commercial telecast was also permitted. This was a step forward for self- supporting part-of revenues required.
The cabinet decided in 1962 that educational television be established in Pakistan and it should be under government control.
In October 1963 President gave his consent and said “television in not a luxury, it is a necessity”.
As a result of an agreement between the government of Pakistan and government of Japan, the Nippon Electric company established two pilot stations at Lahore and Dacca in 1964 and 1965 respectively. Initially these stations operated daily for three hours.
Later on more stations emerged. Now there are 5 PTV centres in Pakistan namely Karachi, Lahore, Islamabad, Quetta and Peshawar.
In 1993 PTV-2 was established in order to cater to the needs of educational field in the country. PTV-2 was established at Islamabad. Further educational centres are planned to be operative in other PTV centres to work exclusively for education.
As regards the transmission of PTV-2 there were 16 re-broadcast booster stations in the initial year of 1993. The transmission network will further expand with the passage of time.
The Television promoters company which initially started programming in Pakistan in 1964 was converted into a public limited corporation in 1967. The Managing Director, nominated by the government is the executive head of the corporation. The corporation functions under the control of chairman PTV. There is a Board of Directors to look after policy matters and important affairs of the corporation.
Ambitious plans were chalked out for the development of television from the • inception and a good many of these goals have been realised. Talent in the country has been sought out, nurtured, encouraged and developed. A great number of skilled and technical hands, producers and allied personnel were required. The needhas been fully met from within the country. With modest beginning PTV steadily progressed to become an established network, recognized as one of the leading TV organisations in South East Asia. In achieving this goal the enthusiastic and dedicated efforts of those working in PTV as well as associated with it and the encouragement of the government of Pakistan were the most vital factors.
Today television has a national network covering the six main programmes producing and transmitting centres are linked with high-powered re-broadcast stations. The telephone and telegraph department of the government1 of Pakistan established a microwave link in 197-5 connecting all these six centres and their re- broadcast stations to form the PTV hook-up, known as the National Network. Satellite up link was established in 1992.
Colour television introduced in Pakistan in 1976, has added immeasurably to the viewing pleasure of the masses. The sophistication and artistry of PTV productions has also stood to gain from the introduction of colour TV. PTV productions have entered the international competitions since 1971 and many are the awards they have won for the country;
During the early years of PTV, a Central Training Institute was set up for the. training of programme producers and technical personnel. This institute has now been elevated to a full-fledged PTV Academy, imparting training to television personnel in all fields – news, engineering, management, finance, current affairs, programme production etc.
Television was introduced in Pakistan to promote an enlightened awareness of the world, foster a consciousness of Pakistan’s own heritage, the social and economic growth of the country and to provide inspiration and guidance for progress and prosperity. Television was considered necessary also for bringing about a genuine revolution in the social and cultural life of the masses. It has a role as an instrument and most effective medium of education, entertainment and information.
• Development, with PTV, is a way of life. Over 32 years, it has developed in all spheres, gradually and surely. It is PTV’s earnest Endeavour to provide inspiration to the nation and help in the process of dissemination of Islamic values and nation building activities besides meaningful programmes even in the context of entertainment programmes.
As students of electronic media you should be able to continue the studies and research in specific objectives of television and its impact on general masses as well as special audience groups.
Private T.V Channels in Pakistan
Electronic Information and Broadcast network in Pakistan is controlled by the government. Due to government control, it is not possible for any individual or a company to launch a private television channel in Pakistan independently.
In 1989, the Government of Pakistan has granted a licence to PTN (Peoples Television Network) later renamed as STN (Shalimar Television Network). STN
was allowed to establish television station in 22 cities of Pakistan.
The basic idea behind the creation of STN (initially PTN) was to have a TV channel broadcasting programmes of entertainment and of national importance with the collaboration of private sector without incurring government expenses:
STN provides 30% of its air time to the government for its programmes free of charges.
Programmes are produced in the private production studios. Intellectual property owners and talents are involved in the activity which has benefitted the talents and have made private productions a profitable business.