Historical Development of Pakistan Television

Historical Development of Television
Television is the result of technological developments of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Television net work began in the 1930s, Rapid growth of programming came about following World War-II.
Having in two decades – the 1930s and 1940s – emerged from experimental beginnings to become a fixture in Britain and the United States, it would, in two more decades, bacome a World medium.
Developments came with startling speed. Industrial nations that had participated in pre-war experiments could be expected to make early starts in post­war television; they included Japan, Canada, Australia, and a number of European • nations. Less expected was a burst of activity from other nations.
In Latin America, Mexico, Cuba, and Brazil led the way, all launching . television operations in 1950. They were followed repidly by others. By the end of that decade eighteen Latin American nations had some form of television, with more on the verge. Asia virtually kept pace, with the Philippines starting in 1953. By the mid-1960s eighteen Asian nations including Pakistan, had entered the television age; others were planning to follow. Africa was not far behind. Algeria began in 1965, Egypt in 1960. By the end of the 1960s fifteen African nations had made a start in television. Half the world’s nations had by now joined the procession.
Pakistan’s first pilot Television Station went on air from Lahore on 26th November, 1964. Now Pakistan Television has two channels called as PTV and PTV-2.
The idea to establish television in the country was supported by the report of the commission on National Education set up by the Ayub government in 1958. The commission concluded that television was necessary for educational, economic and social set-up of the country. Interestingly the major emphasis was on education^and hence the television was introduced in the name of education, Initially television was set up with the help of UNESCO, Columbo plan and Japanees government.
The Japanees report submitted in 1962 urged that television should be introduced as a general purpose service and also cater to the educational needs of the masses.
Funding was a matter of concern for a poor country like Pakistan to meet the graving cost of television broadcasting commercial telecast was also permitted. This was a step forward for self- supporting part-of revenues required.
The cabinet decided in 1962 that educational television be established in Pakistan and it should be under government control.
In October 1963 President gave his consent and said “television in not a luxury, it is a necessity”.
As a result of an agreement between the government of Pakistan and government of Japan, the Nippon Electric company established two pilot stations at Lahore and Dacca in 1964 and 1965 respectively. Initially these stations operated daily for three hours.
Later on more stations emerged. Now there are 5 PTV centres in Pakistan namely Karachi, Lahore, Islamabad, Quetta and Peshawar.
In 1993 PTV-2 was established in order to cater to the needs of educational field in the country. PTV-2 was established at Islamabad. Further educational centres are planned to be operative in other PTV centres to work exclusively for education.
As regards the transmission of PTV-2 there were 16 re-broadcast booster stations in the initial year of 1993. The transmission network will further expand with the passage of time.
The Television promoters company which initially started programming in Pakistan in 1964 was converted into a public limited corporation in 1967. The Managing Director, nominated by the government is the executive head of the corporation. The corporation functions under the control of chairman PTV. There is a Board of Directors to look after policy matters and important affairs of the corporation.
Ambitious plans were chalked out for the development of television from the • inception and a good many of these goals have been realised. Talent in the country has been sought out, nurtured, encouraged and developed. A great number of skilled and technical hands, producers and allied personnel were required. The needhas been fully met from within the country. With modest beginning PTV steadily progressed to become an established network, recognized as one of the leading TV organisations in South East Asia. In achieving this goal the enthusiastic and dedicated efforts of those working in PTV as well as associated with it and the encouragement of the government of Pakistan were the most vital factors.
Today television has a national network covering the six main programmes producing and transmitting centres are linked with high-powered re-broadcast stations. The telephone and telegraph department of the government1 of Pakistan established a microwave link in 197-5 connecting all these six centres and their re- broadcast stations to form the PTV hook-up, known as the National Network. Satellite up link was established in 1992.
Colour television introduced in Pakistan in 1976, has added immeasurably to the viewing pleasure of the masses. The sophistication and artistry of PTV productions has also stood to gain from the introduction of colour TV. PTV productions have entered the international competitions since 1971 and many are the awards they have won for the country;
During the early years of PTV, a Central Training Institute was set up for the. training of programme producers and technical personnel. This institute has now been elevated to a full-fledged PTV Academy, imparting training to television personnel in all fields – news, engineering, management, finance, current affairs, programme production etc.
Television was introduced in Pakistan to promote an enlightened awareness of the world, foster a consciousness of Pakistan’s own heritage, the social and economic growth of the country and to provide inspiration and guidance for progress and prosperity. Television was considered necessary also for bringing about a genuine revolution in the social and cultural life of the masses. It has a role as an instrument and most effective medium of education, entertainment and information.
• Development, with PTV, is a way of life. Over 32 years, it has developed in all spheres, gradually and surely. It is PTV’s earnest Endeavour to provide inspiration to the nation and help in the process of dissemination of Islamic values and nation building activities besides meaningful programmes even in the context of entertainment programmes.
As students of electronic media you should be able to continue the studies and research in specific objectives of television and its impact on general masses as well as special audience groups.
Private T.V Channels in Pakistan
Electronic Information and Broadcast network in Pakistan is controlled by the government. Due to government control, it is not possible for any individual or a company to launch a private television channel in Pakistan independently.
In 1989, the Government of Pakistan has granted a licence to PTN (Peoples Television Network) later renamed as STN (Shalimar Television Network). STN
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was allowed to establish television station in 22 cities of Pakistan.
The basic idea behind the creation of STN (initially PTN) was to have a TV channel broadcasting programmes of entertainment and of national importance with the collaboration of private sector without incurring government expenses:
STN provides 30% of its air time to the government for its programmes free of charges.
Programmes are produced in the private production studios. Intellectual property owners and talents are involved in the activity which has benefitted the talents and have made private productions a profitable business.
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Recording formats – Different types of Audio Recording Formats

Recording formats:
The recording equipments and the reproducing equipments are associated with each other; the former records the programmes while the second reproduces them for listening etc. These equipments are very sophisticated and robust for professional use and are costly whereas the ordinary ones being not so much sophisticated are cheap and are accessible for common man use.
The recording and re-production of sound or two different processes which work against each other i.e;, one records the sound whereas the other reproduces it. The reproduction of sound is a replica of the recorded sound. Now a day’s most of the recorders and reproducers work on the principle of magnetic recording.
The magnetic recordings can be made on either a plastic or iron oxide tape or on a wire of small diameter. The wire recorder is now outdated. The tape is used practically in all modern magnetic recording equipments.
As there is no wear on the tape in the recording on play-hack operations they car. be used almost indefinitely. If the tape should break, the two ends can be joined by the use of a plastic splicing tape. The use of magnetic tape has added great flexibility to recording operations. If a mistake is made, a correction can be repeated. The section of the tape containing the error is removed, and the corrected version is applied in its place.
Many unique effects can be accomplished before the recording is complete:
1.   Two or more recordings can be superimposed on the same tape,
2.   the range of certain audio sections can be increased or decreased with the help of filters and                                                        
3.   echo and other effects can be added.
If the recording is no longer needed the sounds can be removed by erasing and the tape can be re-used.
Some of the other advantages of the magnetic recorder are (1) excellent fidelity can be obtained, (2) longer recording time (3) the practically compact record simplifies storage and handling, (4) it provides instantaneous playback without processing, (5) it has a minimum of background noise, (6) it is effected very little by external vibrations, and (7) it is completely portable.
A disadvantage of the magnetic recorder is that regular preventive maintenance must be performed. In order to prevent deterioration of the recording on the tape, all parts of the equipment touching the oxide-side of the tape – such as tape guides, capstan and roller, and head surfaces – should be cleaned regularly with grain alcohol. Also, during recording and/ or play­back the head may become slightly magnetized. This small amount of magnetization may (1) add noise to the recording, (2) cause part of the signal to be erased, and (3) lower the signal-to-noise ratio. It is therefore of prime importance that the heads be demagnetized regularly, using a device designed for this purpose.
Control Room :
This is a room within a Broadcasting House. It is the technical central room in which such equipments are installed which can handle incoming sound signals, amplify those signals to a suitable value being sufficient to feed into a transmitter (studio to transmitter link – STL) for being transmitted to the main transmitter of that Broadcasting House.
It is also used to handle sound programmes coming from various studios viz; talks, dramas, features, documentaries, music etc.., amplify them to a suitable level to drive the tape recorders in the recording room for the purpose of recording these programmes on tapes.
The control room also process the sound signals, for feeding the general programme monitoring within the various important points in the broadcasting house.       The equipments installed in the control room are generally, audio mixers, power amplifiers, monitoring amplifiers, emergency power supply systems and switching equipment for incoming and out-going programmes-. Audio consoles receive the incoming sound programmes and process output, for distribution network.
Dubbing:
It is a technical term used for producing copy of a prerecorded item. It is infact a recording. Sometimes it is desired that a copy of a recorded item is required to be sent to other stations, in that case dubbing is carried out, the copy is sent to other stations and the master copy is retained.
Editing:
Editing means deleting something which is unwanted, objectionable, repetitions or any other flaw that has been recorded during the original recording. Editing can be. carried-out in two ways. Electronically through the recording machines or through cut & splice method. Of these two methods electronic editing through recording machines is preferable. The editted recorded tape is the final flaw-less tape which is put on the air as and when required. An editted recording is infact a finished product, ready for broadcast.
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Radio Prospects and Challenges

These transmitters operate on the frequency range 645 KHZ to 1605 KHZ. These transmitters have a specific service area within a particular country depending on the power of the transmitters. Thus many such stations have to be set up to cover a country. These stations are used to cover a particular country and are called National Stations. The transmitters which operate on the frequency range 3 MHZ to 30 MHZ are called short wave transmitters. The transmitted waves from such stations are fed to directional antenna systems which convert into sky waves and are used to cover specific target areas lying into other countries and thus these are called international radio stations. This mode of service has been in use since long and is still in use.
The advent of satellite communication is now being used to Internationalize Radio Programmes with a very high level of quality as it operates on very high frequencies and is free of disturbances.
Prospects and Challenges:
Better prospects are now available in radio through satellites and to adopt this system is posing challenges in the field of radio communication.
Satellite Broadcasting:
The space communications equivalent of an earth-based repeater is called an active communications satellite.
A high-powered signal is transmitted from the sending station on the Earth. This line of sight microwave broadcast travels through the atmosphere and to the receiver of the active satellite. The output of this receiver is fed directly to a transmitter within the satellite and a new signal which contains the same Information as the old one is transmitted back to the Earth. Even when very high amounts of power were used by the Earth transmitter in a passive satellite system,
the signals that were received back on Earth were extremely weak. The same high amounts of power most still be used with an active communications satellite system, but since the signal is retransmitted Out in space within the satellite proper, the received transmissions back on Earth are far stronger.
The active satellite system is the one we are interested in as far as television receive-only Earth stations are concerned. The original broadcasts are transmitted from very high-powered Earth stations whose antennas are aimed directly at the satellite. These stations transmit on a frequency of around six gigahertz. Out in space, the active satellite is equipped with transponders. A transponder is simply a transmitter and receiver which are connected to one another. The detected information from the receiver is fed to the input of the transmitter and beamed back to Earth. One satellite may have a few transponders or possibly even twenty or more. When receiving satellite TV at home, each transponder serves as a separate television channel which can be selected in much the same manner as is done today with your present set.
Satellites are usually physically small devices and space must be conserved wherever possible. For this reason, a satellite with many different cahnnels may have only two antennas, one for transmit and one for receive. Each chiwmel shares these antennas by using them for small fractions of a second. To provide an easily understood example, let’s assume that a satellite has two channels which must share the same antennas. Channel A may use the antennas for J00 milliseconds and then be switched off for an equal amount of time while channel B uses the system for 1O0 milliseconds. When channel B is switched off, channel A uses the antennas again. Channel A and B will be switched on and off many times during the blink of an eye,
but you could never tell this by watching a received picture at your Earth station because of the speed with which the switching occurs. If you were watching channel A. you would never know when channel B was using the same antennas t« transmit on another frequency which you were not receTiving.
In any event, the on/off nature of satellite transponders is totally unnoticeable by human beings.
As was stated earlier, most television stations which use satellites for their broadcasts use very high-powered transmitters on the ground. They transmit at a frequency of approximately six gigahertz, but these signals do not come back to earth at the same frequency. Referring to Fig. the six gigahertz transmission leaves the earth and travels to the satellite. The orbiter’s receiver is designed to detect a six gigahertz signal. It pulls the audio and video informations from the transmissions and then feeds it directly to the satellite transmitter, which has an output at a frequency of about four gigahertz. This is the frequency which the earth-based television receive station is set up to detect.
Since we know that the satellite signal is originally transmitted on the Earth, travels into space, is retransmitted by the satellite at a different frequency and is finally received back on Earth again, it can be said that the signal that is ultimately received by an Earth station is a function of:
2.2       The signal transmitted to the satellite at six gigahertz.
2.3       Signal processing in the satellite.
2.4       Signal transmitted at four gigahertz from the satellite.
2.5       Directivity of the satellite antennas gain.
2.6       Path loss.
2.7       Gain of the receiving antenna.
2.8       Noise temperature of the antenna.
2.9       Low noise amplifier noise temperature and gain.
2.10    Cable loss to the receiver.
2.11    Receiver noise figure.
All of these terms may not be familiar to you however. This list is presented to show the difficult factors which determine how well a signal is received by your personal Earth station. There are many different satellites in orbit around the Earth, it is from these satellites that a whole new world of television enjoyment emanates. Su re, all of the signals are originally transmitted here on Earth, but with a a satellite deep in space, these transmissions can be received bv so many more persons. The, wonderful thing about receiving signals from satellites is found in the fact that we ‘end to pay very little attention to these multi-million dollar orbiters. We know they are up there and we know their positions in order to properly aim our antennas: but other than this, the erath station equipment is the part of this complex system which gets the most attention. The satellite are reliable, always present and simply do not require the attention that our personal Eart stations require. Billions upon billions of dollars of research have gone into making our satellite programme as dependable and useful as it is.
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Radio Drama

Radio drama is an adapted form of stage drama. The main difference between the stage and radio drama is that audiences of stage drama can see the performance of actors with full attention while radio drama is presented through sound alone.
It is the listener who develops the entire scenario in his imagination while listening to the dialogues from the radio set. This makes radio drama virtually a theatre of mind. While the avt va of stage drama are grouped in a building, radio drama ir transmitted from wire s? mass audience who are scattered and alone at homes. Voices at stage are unnaturally loud while on radio these are as normal as in ordinary life.
Glamour of television drama has affected the popularity of radio drama. However radio drama has some advantages over television drama which requires huge settings, costumes and finances. On radio big moves and changes in terms of place and time can easily be interpreted through the sounds. Radio writers as compared to television writers can create as many scenes involving different places as they derive. They can even move from earth to the space only with the help of dialogues or a sound effect. In this sense radio drama is not much expensive to present.                                                                                       ,
Nevertheless the very simplicity of. radio drama requires more imaginative and innovative writing and production techniques to produce a good radio drama. The only available tools are sounds and the skill to study different sounds (dialogues and effects) creating the required effect interpreting a particular dramatic situation and atmosphere.
Radio drama .like television drama can further he classified as serial, series and single plays hut even in a serial, an episode is ought to he a complete play in respects of its rising actions,, twists, climax and anticlimax etc. A strong story line, development of the plot into natural sciences, characterization, dialogues and sound effect and music are the main ingredients of a drama.
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Dramas are used for various motives including entertainment, education, and social purposes like community development.
In the third world broadcasts including Pakistan, radio-drama is often used as a part of publicity and propaganda campaigns. Stories on such themes may have weak plots and predictable conclusions.
Radio Documentary
The term documentary is derived from French word “Documentaries” which means a “travel picture”. Documentary is defined as a programme which’ reproduces or interprets real life situations. Consider the ‘document” part within the title of this format which implies the presentation of facts and actuality reporting (the documents). Documentary is basically a programme which presents various aspects of topic, fact or subject objectively.
Because of narration of facts this format is also considered a “real radio”. Documentary is a creative form in which a given subject is treated using the- techniques of sound medium including voices of actual people, giving their experiences, real events and sounds of locations.
Documentaries are broadcast for general audiences covering a wide range of subjects that need investigation and have wide appeal. These can be informative and educative. Documentaries can comment on social conditions, present different
opinions of people and factual account.
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Another version of documentary is the latest production trend of “Documentary drama” which includes recreation of certain parts of the documentary in the studies using dramatic techniques. This is referred to as the fiction part of the documentary. Nevertheless this portion is only to help representing the facts. The contents of the information used through the “drama portion” is not “fiction” itself.
Your studies on documentary should include the production techniques and their impact and also the purposes where documentaries are useful. The broad range subjects of documentaries are:
i)              Information, news and current affairs.
ii)            Investigative topics such as political an*l social issues, historical events.” Here the documentary attempts to answer the journalistic queries of “who, what, when, how, why and where”.        *
iii)           Personalities
iv)           ideas
Radio Music
Music is a personal hobby, a performing art and an enjoyable recreation.
Music is holding an important place in the general broadcasting since the early  days. Music fills a large part of all radio channels (except news channels.) Consequently music has taken the role of chief source of entertainment on radio. Importance of music can be viewed from the fact that radio is not considered complete without music and it is almost half side of radio. Entire production activities are seen in terms of either “spoken word” programmes or “music”.
If “spoken words” are vehicle to express thoughts, the music conveys feelings and light sentiments. Besides solo music or instrumental music, the combination of music and poetry is rather more popular. In fact the term “music” in daily usage means poetic rendering sung in harmony with the musical instruments.
It is said that the future of radio is associated with two things – current affairs and music. The broadcast stations keep pace and remain accommodative and flexible to promote new trends in music.
To watch the programmes with the mood of the listeners is an important motive of the broadcast planners. No doubt one of the most important functions of contemporary music is to reflect the mood and aspiration of the people of the time. The most successful music is the one that performs its job well.
Special Audience Programmes
Disc-jockeying (D.J.) programmes, popular all over the world, have a unique style of presenting music along with the chit chat in.a fast mood. A large audience mostly the youth find attraction in Disc-Jockey programmes. The Disc-Jockey style of western programmes have been adopted by Radio Pakistan in various “hourly chunks” putting together folk, light, pop and film music with small talking referred to as comparing.
You should continue to study the important aspects of musical programmes in terms of their popularity, basic features and effects on society.
Children programmes are planned and presented in accordance with the specific needs and mood of children as a special audience.
Programmes comprise such items that have special interest for children including stories, skits, introduction of children, specially composed musical items, talks and chit-chat.
Examples of children programmes from Radio Pakistan include: weekly composite children programme from all stations in Urdu as well as in regional languages, bed time stories. “Aye Quran Parhein” is also presented for children.
You should distinguish between programme exclusively meant of children of 5 to 12 years of age, pre-school children and curriculum based educational programmes,                                                 c
Special surveys, researches, production techniques, feed-back and evaluation are all necessary tools for the effectiveness of the programmes.
Womens’ Programmes
Womens’ programmes are special audience ,> . grammes.
It is almost an international trend to allot specific time for women listeners from all the broadcasting stations. ,
In third world countries including Pakistan, programmes for women have special motives which include: to rouse awareness about thcr rights and responsibiliies, improve the economic productivity of women folk, provide them entertainment through items of interest in
their own every day spoken languages and styles and to give educative messages.
Programmes are presented in friendly and sympathetic manner by the women comperes to create a sense of belonging among the women community.
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Items of womens’ programmes include : news and its background explanation, music of women’s choice, interviews of working and prominent personalities, cookery, household, health beauty and nutrition, dress and fashion, business enterprises and community development.
Radio Pakistan has allotted exclusive time for the women listeners. Example include : weekly womens programmes from all station – ?n Urdu and regional languages.
Rural programmes
Rural areas in third world countries are usually back w’atersh^: of civilization. In Pakistan, rural population is the back bone of our national economy, as it is responsible to promote the most important culture of the country – the Agriculture. Our socio economic conditions a¥e closely related to the rural community, the most productive population of the Country. in terms of food, other agricultural products and raw material. Radio Pakistan from its very inception :
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EDUCATIONAL RADIO

EDUCATIONAL RADIO
Educational broadcasting usually comprises a series of programmes on a subject, like the sequence and chapters of written material of a book, so designed to assist the educational process. Radio programmes falling under educational broadcasting are normally planned in conjunction with the prescribed syllabus.
In worldwide belief use of radio for educational purposes has its own history. The broadcast medium has been used both for curriculum based and general educative purposes. “School Broadcast” was already established before the Second World War. United states, Australia and united kingdom has successfully woven the radio programmes into the normal school time tables. During and immediately after the Second World War a shortage of teachers was felt in Japan. At that time radio helped to compensate the lack of teaching personnel in various disciplines. Later radio was given new roles.
General Educative Role:     Radio has been extensively used to teach languages, civic sense, social values, music, hobbies and life long educational requirements.
Role in third world Countries:       In the third world countries like Pakistan with a high rate of population growth, lower GNP and per capita income non developed communication and wide spread illiteracy, it is difficult to allocate required resources to education sector. Hence the non formal educational approaches with modern means of communication, including radio should be used for the spread of education.
Others areas of life:              In Pakistan during 60’s and early 70’s radio has been used to re-inforce the formal school curriculum under “School Broadcasts”. This category of programmes is now no longer broadcast from radio Pakistan. However, radio is used in other educative areas like religion agriculture and community development.
RADIO PROGRAMMES IN TERMS OF PROGRAMME FORMATS
The different kinds of educational radio programmes can also be studied in terms of programme formats. Programme format refers to the production techniques and styles of a particular programme.
Radio Talk
Radio Interview
Panel Discussion
 Radio Drama
 Magazine Programme
 Radio Feature
RADIO TALK:         It is the most commonly used format of radio broadcasting where information is delivered in a simple manner. Educational radio talks in a way serve as a substitute of classroom lecture. However according to broadcast theory a radio talk is neither a lecture nor any sort of oratory. It is conversational type of communication on one-to-one basis. It is a talk.
RADIO INTERVIEW:       It is closer to two-say communication. There are two sides of an interview i.e. the interviewee and the interviewer. In educational context the interviewee represents the teacher while the interviewer represent the pupils.
PANEL DISCUSSION:     Exchange of ideas through conversation is an ancient practice in teaching and learning situations. Panel discussion is a radio programme format in which four to five people talk on some given topic. An impartial chairperson guides and directs the discussion.
RADIO DRAMA:    Because of the sound medium radio drama is said to be “theatre of mind”, scenery is conceived in the imagination of listeners. In this way the audience become involved in the programme. It communicates to the listeners in two ways, through information and through empathy.
MAGAZINE PROGRAMME:      Magazine programme is a format in which a number of short items on some related topic are linked together through narration or other devices like music or pauses. The variety of items of magazine programme, presented in a lighter mood make the programme entertaining and interesting. However in this format there is no time to go into the depths of details of the subject. Its purpose it to give information in entertainment oriented style. Items comprise short talks, interviews, music, letters, quiz, news and views and announcements.
RADIO FEATURE:            It is a typical radio broadcast format. It is taken as a serious and sober informative programme. Feature usually restricts itself to one theme. The educational message is given through a variety of voices, in the form of pep talk, interviews and narration.
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Current affairs programmes

Current affairs programme is in fact news programme which gives some details about one or more particular news items. In this type there are many formats, as in other radio programmes. As news is a dry subject, its format should keep on changing in order to maintain listener’s interest. Current affairs programmes have different subjects than other programmes. These are the news programmes to explain and provide details and also to comment over a particular event. Such programmes are broadcast to explain significance, the consequences and the effect of one or more news on people.
There is an explosion of information, every single minute and an hour there is a new information to communicate. In the third world where democratic traditions and institutions are not as deep-rooted as in the South, there is a growing need to bring transparency. Needless to say that transparency lays bare all secrets. While communicating on electronic media, objectivity should be hallmark of current affairs.
In our news bulletins there is much room for improvement, especially in Radio News bulletins. To give more credibility to our news bulletins, correspondent’s voice or eye-witness account be incorporated.
In the third world where literacy rate is abysmally low, the importance of current affairs is not only to inform but educate as well. With the news item, a social & cultural background is needed to bring home the desired information. In a country like Pakistan where cultural pluralism like most of the countries, is not homogeneous, broadcast of current affairs assume relative importance. Ethenic feelings, political polarization, and religious intolerance are some of the plague spots. There are growing fears that ethnicity under certain circumstances has a propensity to become ‘totalizing’ displacing other loyalities and obligations to become the sole basis of identity. Then the likelihood of ethnic conflict increases, because people’s identities and alliances take on a single, rather than a multiple focus, leading to a polarization of social division.
Current affairs programme are of two types, studio programme and field productions. Detail is as under :-
These are the programmes prepared in the studios. According to the neecVof current affairs programmes we can prepare the following formats.
a) TALKS: It is a format of current affairs as well as other radio programmes. This format presents informations on particular subject of common interest and utility with the personal experiences of the talker. Talks on radio ;ue classified in different categories depending on the nature of the subject such as : Short/pep talks, religious talks, anniversaries/festivals talks, ta ks related to any current event (General Talks).
b)   DISCUSSION: This is the format of each type of programmes in which more than two participants take part to discuss about some subject. Participants disseminate some information about some topic having more than one point of view of sharp contrast or opposing nature. It presents varying opinions on a specific subject and scope. Discussion-programme may be’ of three types:- Panel discussion, forum discussion, and audience participated discussion.
c)   DOCUMENTARY: French word documentary means a “Travel picture”. This word has been taken in by radio from films and deals with sound pictures supported with oral evidence on the subjects it is dealing with. Thus in documentary sound is used to tell the story, the sound of the human voice,
the sound of human activity and the sound of music. It contains the real words of real persons and the sound of the events.
d)   INTERVIEWS:,A radio interview is a story developed through questions and answers to find out the truth about an event, issue subject/topic or personality. Interviews are usually recorded before being broadcast, but some interviews are broadcast live. Three participant^ are required for interview, the interviewer, interviewee and the listeners.
e)    INTEGRATED NEWS BROADCAST: These are the news bulletins prepared in the news section for broadcast. In such news bulletins reports of the reporters on the spot are integrated. These reports are used as a source for cross-checking the news coming from the various news agencies. These reports also help to present the objectivity of the broadcasting organisation concerned.
f)   NEWS REEL: News reel, actually is a combination of outdoor broadcast (OB’s) and studio recording and comprises some important news of the week or days. It presents depth of the news in focus. Background can be obtained from printed or media sources or the persons involved. It is preferable to include interviews or impressions.
g)  CURRENT AFFAIRS MAGAZINE: It is a package programme depending upon many formats. In this type of programme informations about different events, personalities or development programmes are given.
h)     RADIO NEWS CONFERENCE: It is just like an ordinary press conference taken place by a personality and published in the newspapers. Radio news conference may be about the performance of any institution, any event or any political, social, economical or literary subject.
i)    NEWS COMMENTARY: This is a detailed information about one particular item (news) of general interest. Personal view point of writer is also included.         . V.
FIELD PRODUCTIONS:
Field productions are called outside broadcasts, (OB’s). It is a broadcast different from studio. It means broadcast of an event originating from a point remote from the studio booths. These broadcasts are arranged at the time of some important event. It could be done with simple reporting as news but it never attracts the listeners because the situation and atmosphere is not presented in reporting. These are microphones that record all these and carries to the listeners. OB’s may be as under:-
a)  RUNNING COMMENTARIES: These are the field productions or OB’s depending upon the eye witness accounts, both live or recorded. Such as sports coverage’s.
b)   RADIO REPORTS: It is a report about any event which could be highlighted by giving it different aspects. It may be about social or development sectors. It emphasizes event itself and the impact that we expect on the environment or social life.
ACTUALITY INSERTS: These are based on the recording of events functions and impressions of the people involved in the certain events.
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Writing for radio

Writing for radio:
Writing for radio is writing for millions including every type of people, educated, uneducated, young and old, men and women from every section of the society. Radio is generally listened in houses where all the members of the family move together. It is therefore necessary that nothing should be there against moral ethics of our society. There are five key principles to be kept in mind while writing radio news. It is spoken, it is immediate, it is person to person, it is heard only once and it is sound only.
While it is true that radio news scripts are shorter than most news stories written for print, the radio news writer is still obliged to tell a complete and clear story. Facts needed to put the story into perspective and provide balance which must be included.
The most important point regarding style in radio news writing is simplicity. If the language is too complex or difficult it is possible the story will not be completely understood. Radio news writers generally apply a few rules of their own to help them get the information across in the simplest form. These are; keep the sentences short, avoid complex construction and use basic words not colloquialism.
Writers are encouraged to get into the substance of the story and this is best done by starting with a good declarative sentence that presents the most important information. The listener is not to be overburdened with too many facts in the lead. The listener should know immediately what has happened. Don’t leave him wondering. Writing news for different’audipnce also needs different approaches within the country, some news bulletins are for the whole people, while some are beamed for different provinces or for particular ethnic pockets. In the external services news is prepared for foreign listeners. All of them deserve special awareness on the part of the editor.
Preparation of News bulletins:
There are many categories of news bulletins in our part of the world. In Radio Pakistan the main categories are; national, world service (for overseas Pakistanis), regional, local, external and general overseas slow speed bulletins. National bulletins are meant for the entire population of the- country and are broadcast both in Urdu and English. News bulletins for overseas Pakistanis are broadcast in Urdu in the World Service. Regional bulletins are broadcast in the regional languages. Local bulletins contain news and announcements of local interest in a particular city or area. External bulletins are broadcast for overseas listeners in their respective languages. The general overseas slow speed bulletins are broadcast at dictation pace for use in our-embassies in different countries. In the preparation of these bulletins we have to go through the process of selecting and editing news and arranging them in order of importance. In case of longed duration bulletins headlines are also given. The headlines call for clearest and tightest possible writing.
The general News Room is the centre of activity in the preparation and production of news bulletins. The wire copy, dispatches of reporters, monitoring
reports, hand outs and press releases are the main sources of news production- system. Whatever lands in the news room undergoes a regular process of sorting. The editor has got to he quite selective and choosy. This is because of the limited space available for news cast. The skill to reject redundant material and select useable material is one of the basic requirements of a good radio editor.
Unlike newspapers, a radio bulletin is to be prepared by not more than two editors who select stories from large quantity of material. The editor is supposed to be quick enough to keep on selecting the probable’s and rejecting the useless. Then comes the stage of drafting. Before handing over the bulletin to the newsreader it is arranged in a logical order.
Problems and pressures:
The main challenge before a radio editor is to make the copy simple and easy to understand. The editor is supposed to be capable of writing simple and clear language and making crisp news draft. Difficult and useless words and phrases are to be avoided. Unlike periodicals and daily newspapers, radio news is always ‘immediate’ in nature. If it is official medium, the official obligations are also there. In radio there are generally no restrictions or specific guidelines. The editor is required to determine whether a particular item is to go on the air or not. Radio editor not only faces problem of short space but also of time as well. Preparing a bulletin is like’ running against the time. Every regular bulletin has to go on the air at a fixed time.
Almost in every bulletin several items are read unrehearsed by the news reader if drafted later after the bulletin has started. Smart radio writers deal with such ‘Problems stories’ successfully as they are usually able to make sound judgments quickly and avoiding pit falls.
Presently news bulletins in Pakistan are broadcast in a flat manner without voice inserts and other actualities. This makes the news bulletins lifeless. Voice reports and sound actualities should be inserted in news and current affairs programmers to make them more interesting and credible. As a consequence of the. present style of news production the radio editor in our country has little knowledge about tape editing techniques which include cutting of recorded material and dubbing etc. Editing of interviews for news bulletins is also a bit difficult which needs skill and training. ,
Our all news bulletins are translated versions of the master copy (prepared in English). This reflects lack of confidence on the part of those who are at the helm of affairs. Translated copy is always unnatural and complicated. If English is replaced . by Urdu as a medium of editing it will bring about many advantages. It will also lead to a better and close “liaison between the national and regional languages and help to promote national integration.
News reading is another integral part of broadcast journalism. After all it i’ the newsreader who conveys the contents of reports to the listener. The news reader should not only possess a good voice but a lot of other qualities including good accent and pronunciation, art of effective delivery, correct use of pauses and stress, intelligent reading and complete confidence.
The news reader is the real messenger of any news organization. The message should be transmitted in an effective and pleasant manner. Both the message and its communication should be faultless. Often a radio station is identified through the style of its news reading.
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