Electronic Media History & Challenges

In a world influenced by satellite and cyber-space technology, electronic media has a highly significant role to play in shaping the life and destiny of nations. The visual media, notably television, has a stupendous, impact upon moulding human minds and opinion.In the given scenario the electronic media has an onerous responsibility in addressing the socio-economic problems of societies and disseminating unbiased information. This responsibility can be effectively shouldered if the media treads the path of accuracy and objectivity in transmission of its programmes.BRIEF HISTORY: Since independence in 1947 the electronic media in Pakistan remained dominated by the state-run Pakistan Television and Pakistan Broadcasting Corporations. Pakistan Television was launched in November 1964 which switched over to colour transmission 12 years later.As access to diverse sources of information was limited and people could not keep abreast with the rapidly growing developments around them it was decided by the govt opened up electronic […]

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Public Opinion – The Role of Radio

Public Opinion – The Role of Radio Introduction. There is a growing fear of the stranger, broad generalizations, and negative associations, humiliating and dehumanizing labels attached to refugees, asylum seekers, migrants and immigrants, more and more intolerance, xenophobia and racism are being fostered in host countries towards these groups. To make sure that extremism, discrimination and racism do not gain upper hand of the majority of the populations, a culture of tolerance and peaceful living conditions a massive public education program should be developed and incorporated in our schools, organizations and systems to cultivate acceptance and better understanding of the reasons for the presence of refugees, asylum seekers and migrants and creatively use their skills which they bring together to the host countries. In this perspective formal and informal education on the rights and plights of the refugees and asylum seekers and migrants should be integrated. Educational institutions, schools and […]

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RADIO BROADCASTING SYSTEM PAKISTAN

RADIO BROADCASTING SYSTEM Broadcasting: Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video signals which transmit programs to an audience. The audience may be the general public or a relatively large sub-audience, such as children or young adults. RADIO BROADCASTING: Broadcasting system is a chain of technically / electronically coupled elements which is used to pick up an ordinary sound wave, convert it to an electrical wave (of some frequency say from 50Hz to 10 Khz) without any change in its parameters. This sound wave is fed to a radio transmitter where its frequency is again raised by combining it to third wave of a higher frequency called the radio frequency. This is the frequency which is allotted to a particular station (in Pakistan a Frequency Allocation Board (FAB) allotted a frequency). This is called the carrier frequency while the wave of the second frequency is called the audio wave. The […]

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ETHICS OF PHOTO JOURNALISM

Readers often perceive certain photographs as morally “good or bad” as shocking^ distasteful, or unnecessary intrusions into private lives. They often criticise photo journalists for shooting tragic or shocking pictures. The history of photo journalism is filled with examples of photographs of sensational subjects, violent scenes or suffering. The photo journalists who shot these scenes acted instinctively on the obligation to report to public. Other photo journalists, who may have hesitated or backed away because of interference by others, or even owing to their own sensibilities, were simply not doing their job. The fact that photographs can often be shocking is part of the burden of being a photo journalist. there are sime ethus of photo journalism which govern the conduct of photo jot. Midlists and a/so that of editors who decide finally about the fate of a picture i.e. to le published or discarded. In the Pakistani context, the […]

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ROLE AND SCOPE OF PHOTO JOURNALISM

For the combination of pictures with written information has been coined a new term “Photo journalism”. Today newspapers are as dependent on photographs as they are on news stories, features, columns, interviews and editorials, etc. Photograph not only supplement text, but also enhance and extend it by highlighting and pressing upon the readers important points and make it easier for the reader to build up a picture of what he or she is reading about. Another important function of pictures in newspaper is to attract readers attention towards a particular information for achieving a special effect. During the 1920 when pictures became part and parcel of newspapers and magazines, experiments were carried out on transmission of photographic image by wire According to Warran’ Phillip and Edwin (1985), the first photos sent by wire were transmitted from the Associated Press which had established its wire photo network on January 1, 1935 […]

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PROOF READING

PROOF READING Various channels pout hundreds of thousands of words into newsroom daily. Sub-editors select important news and articles amongst them. After necessary editing they are sent to the composing section. The composed matter has to undergo another crucial and important stage i.e. proof-reading whereby not only the errors made by the composing machine operator or printer are removed but a/so the errors that might have escaped the news desk are corrected Chambers English dictionary has defined proof-reading as an impression taken on a slip of a paper for correction before printing finally. While the impression itself is called the proof. The person who marks the errors is called proof-reader Proof reader checks proofs against the typescript. Proof reading can be organised in various ways: a copy holder may read the typescript mentioning punctuation, capital letters, italics, etc to the proof-reader who is checking the proof; the proof-reader may himself […]

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DEFINITION OF EDITORIAL

DEFINITION OF EDITORIAL An editorial is a journalistic essay which either attempts (1) to inform or explain, (2) to persuade or convince, or (3) to stimulate insight on an entertaining or humorous manner. As an essay the editorial may be having an introduction, a body, and a conclusion. In terms of various forms of composition, it may employ exposition, narration, description, or argumentation. Many of the definitions examined below have many characteristics attributed to essays. Generally speaking, an editorial is an expression of opinion based upon a selection of facts which present a truth in a new light-something that everyone knows which no one before ever thought of (William Allen White). An editorial may also be defined as a presentation of facts and opinion in concise, logical, pleasing order for the sake of entertaining, of influencing opinion, or of interpreting significant news in such a way that its importance to […]

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