The PFDF is responsible for the growth, development and promotion of Flying Disc / Frisbeesports in Pakistan. Flying Disc Games are fast athletic sports played by men and women in the Play ground, Golf Grounds, at Beach in Pakistan.
Flying disc sports have traditionally relied upon a spirit of sportsmanship which places the responsibility of fair play on the players themselves. Highly competitive and committed play is encouraged, but never at the expense of the bond of mutual respect between players, adherence to the agreed upon rules of any event, nor the basic enjoyment of play. Protection of these vital elements serves to eliminate adverse conduct from the playing field. The responsibility for the maintenance of this spirit rests on each player’s shoulders.ﾠ For more details to understand
It is a high-energy sport that combines the best aspects of sport.
Q4. Explain the origin and development of Public Relations in Pakistan.
Origin of Public Relation in Pakistan:
Like other parts of the globe, in the areas now constituting Pakistan, PR was practised in one form or the other, even thousands of years ago.
The rulers of South Asia sub-continent made use of rocks and specially constructed monuments to convey royal proclamations and decrees and/ or to highlight their achievements. The rt>yal proclamations, the words of wisdom and Achievements of some rulers of the bygone days can be seen carved on some rocks near Mansehra, Gilgitand other areas in the northern Pakistan even to day . Ashoka’s (about 300B.C) royal decrees appear on a rock near the present city of Mansehra in NWFP. The main purpose of these carvings on rocks/monuments was the desire of the ruler to keep a constant channel of communication, and thus g sustained understanding, with the public. Even today the main.job of a PR practitioner is to promote mutual understanding between his Organization and its public/clientelle.
When we go through the pages of history, we find that the Muslim rulers of South Asia sub-continent had appointed Waqa-i-Nawees (scribes) throughout India for keeping them informed about the opinions and seritiments of the public and also about the general state of affairs in the country. These scribes kept posted information to in order the emperors to enlighten than about the important happenings in their province/region. The scribes worked directly urider the ruler and also reported to. him on the conduct and general, behaviour of the provincial/regional governors/officials, including army commanders. The daily feedback or summary of important news, views, comments etc appearing in the Press, prepared by information officials today for senior functionaries of the state is the improved form of the reports sent by the scribes to the emperors or the kings. In his famous book Aain-i-akbari. Abu-el-Fazal writes that the system of “Waqa-i-Naweesi” existed in India even before the arrival of the Mughals, but Emperor Akbar the Great (1558-1605) recognised its lofty objectives and perfected it.
We can deduce from the above two examples that the history of Public Relations in the areas now constituting Pakistan is quite old and some people have been engaged here in activities which even today form an essential component of the overall job of a PR practitioner. However, a widespread use/application of the public relations activities, as now generally recognised, took roots in the beginning of the twentieth century when some British firms used PR techniques not only to build-up a good image of their organizations’ but also to boost up the sales of their products.
Earlier, the British Government in India had established Public Relations offices at the Provincial level to keep the public informed about the official policies, welfare schemes and development plans launched by the government, while at the same time keeping itself fully informed about the views and reactions of the public to various official policies/ measures. The Provincial Public Relations/Information Departments also performed protocol functions, administered the Press Laws and issued official advertisements. However, at the central level we see a gradual and systematic beginning of the official PR activities when during the World War II the colonial government decided to set-up an Inter-Services Public Relations Directorate (ISPR) for motivating the natives to join the Armed Forces and, for keeping up the esteem and morale of the Indian soldiers in the British Army. Later,- Press Information Department and the Department of Advertising, Films and Publications were set-up at the centre.
During the same years, some commercial companies, particularly those marketing vegetable ghee and tea appeared on the scene, striving through mass media and street demonstrations to attract the masses to their products. The employees’ of those companies offered tea and snacks fried in vegetable ghee to the people gratis. This also used commercial films for inducing the people to take tea and for persuading them to abandon using the “ghee” prepared from animal fats. These films highlighted that the “ghee” prepared from butter or animal fats was extracted (by the natives) under extremely unhygienic conditions while vegetable ghee was prepared and packed by machines strictly conforming to the health laws and observing a high standard of hygiene. As regards tea, the films conveyed the message that the use of tea has a soothing effect in summer, and that it keeps the body war min winter. Such was the state of affairs in the domain of PR in the South Asia Sub-continent till 1947. We can, therefore, say that modern PR practices had just started here when the British left India and when two independent and sovereign states of Pakistan and India appeared in the Sub-continent in the middle of August 1947.
Status of Public Relations after Independence
At the time of Independence, a pre-dominant number of professional staff of the PR establishments, both in the public and private sector, comprised of non-Muslims who preferred to stay in India ,and serve there. Although the provincial governments in, Pakistan had their own PR/Information set-ups, but their non-Muslim staff also migrated^ to India en-masse. The Government of Pakistan had therefore to re-organise and strengthen the Provincial PR/Information departments on priority basis and also establish at the Federal level Press Information Department, Radio Pakistan and the Department of Advertising, Films and Publications. This was an uphill task as there was dearth of qualified and trained staff.
Development in Public Relations in Pakistan
Every successive government in Pakistan recognised the importance/need for moulding the public opinion through public relations/publicity. Consequently, theoperations/ functions of PR/Information departments were gradually expanded to many new areas. A brief account of the PR/publicity network that now exists in Pakistan, alongwith its activities, is given under two separate headings, viz:
The Federal Government conducts internal PR/Publicity through the following organisation:
Press Information Department (PID)
It is one of the important and effective departments of the Government and it not Only suitably projects the policies, plans and development efforts of the Government but also keeps a constant liaison with the newspapers/magazines and the working journalists. Other notable functions of this department include release of official advertisements, conducting of research, preparation of initial drafts for the speeches to be delivered by the Head of the State (President) and the Chief Executive of the country (Prime Minister). It also prepares a daily press summary, containing important news reports and editorial comments/columns/articles/letters to the editors on matters of national significance, for circulation amongst the top -hierarchy of the country.
Directorate of Films and Publications (DFP)
This Directorate, which was known as the Directorate of Advertising, Films and Publications till mid-sixties, was considered to be one of the most effective PR/ publicity organs of the government. However, with the introduction of TV in 1964 and transfer of the advertising wing to the Press Information Department, this department could not maintain its erstwhile pivotal and dignified position. However; it is still playing a very important role and it specializes in the preparation of documentaries, news documentaries, news reels and all sorts of publications. It brings out a number of regular magazines and also publishes well researched and documented material on issues of national significance, including an Official Handbook depicting progress in-various sectors, for circulation both within and outside the country. In short, DFP is one of the main sources for printing and supplying publicity/information material, including pictorial both within and outside the country.
Pakistan National Centre (PNC)
The department was established in 1964 under the name of Pakistan Council for. National Integration, but its ndmenclature was changed to Pakistan National Centre, in 1972, because of the exigencies of the time and the emergence of an independent state of Bangladesh. The Centre arranges lectures, seminars, symposia and group discussions on subjects of national importance. It has 30 branches, called centres, one each in all important towns/cities of Pakistan. Each Centre lias a well-equipped library whose membership is open to all citizens of Pakistan.
Directorate of Research and Reference:
It identifies major problems facing the country and suggests their possible remedies. It used to be a very efficient and effective organization till early 70s but it seems to have become a victim of indifference and apathy these days.
Initially, established as an attached department, Radio Pakistan was converted into a corporation on 19th of December, 1972. This is one of the main PR/publicity organs of the state in a country ^vhere over 70 percent people are illiterate. The corporation broadcasts news bulletins in national and regional language? and also programmes aimed at creating a better awareness amongst people about various issues. It is the sole source of entertainment for a large majority of the people, particularly those living in the rural areas of Pakistan.
Pakistan Television Corporation (PTV)
It made its debut in Pakistan in 1964 when*Television Promoters Company started experimental telecasts. The .company was converted into a limited company in 1967 under the nomenclature of Pakistan Television Corporation. The Corporation has five stations, one each at the Federal and Provincial capitals. The Corporation is entirely a governmentrcontrolled/owned company. Over the years television in pakistan has emerged as the most powerful medium for bringing about the desired change in the attitudes of the people through its programmes. The PTV enjoyed a monopoly till 1990, but it is now facing a severe competition from the Network Television Marketing (NTM), a private sector company which startedits regular transmissions on July17,1990 by acquiring rights for this purpose from Shalimar Recording Company. As on 30th of May, 1996, NTM was telecasting programmes from 10 stations located in major cities of Pakistan. The emergence of NTM has created a healthy competition in the field of popular entertainment and resultantly the programmes of both the networks have tremendously improved.
National Press Trust (NPT):
The National Press Trust used to publish twc> English newspapers (dailies Pakistan Times and Morning News) and two Urdu newspapers (dailies Mashriq and Imroze) for promoting healthy traditions of journalism in the country and also for moulding public opinion and for keeping the people favourably disposed towards the policies of the government. In keeping with its policy of privatization, the Government of Pakistan decided on March 27, 1991, to privatize the NPT newspapers, except the Pakistan Times. However, in a subsequent meeting held in January 1994, it was decided to privatize all newspapers without any exception and consequently rthe Pakistan Times was handed over to a private group on 22nd of May, 1996.
The authorities and the people in Pakistan are now fully aware of the importance and potential of PR as a tool of managing affairs amicably and almost all organizations, including autonomous and semi-autonomous bodies Worth their name, have regular PR outfits of their own. Notable among such bodies arc WAPDA, PTDC, TDCP, PIA, State Bank, IDBP, PICIC, ADBP, CDA, KDA, Pakistan Railways, Pakistan Steel, State Cement Corporation, OGDC, Sui Northern , and Southern Company, Seed Supply Corporation of Pakistan, Attock Oil Company, Population Planning, National Savings Directorate and National Highway Authority etc.
The basic aim of external PR/publicity is to project abroad a positive image of the country, its people and culture as well as to create an increased awareness about Pakistan’s policy goals, its endeavours for socio-economic development and for promoting peace within and outside. Though it is not the main objective, but efforts are also made for attracting foreign investments in Pakistan, boost-up tourism and sale of Pakistan products.
It is the responsibility of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Pakistanis missions abroad to maintain, at official level, an overall good image of the country. But it is imperative that cordial friendly relations that exist between Pakistan and other governments be diversified to their mutual benefits so that a reflection of good relations is found in all walks of life. This vital job is handled by the External Publicity Wing (E. P. Wing) of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting through its over 20 Information Sections abroad. The Information Sections, which are attached to Pakistan’s missions in major countries, cultivate good relations with leaders of public opinion, intellectuals and the working journalists and facilitate, ks and when required, their visits to Pakistan. The E. P. Wing is ako responsible for removing mistrust and suspicions about Pakistan by providing factual information in addition to counteracting negative propaganda. It also prepares a feedback on the general views of the people and foreign media on various issues of interest to Pakistan.
Public Relations of Private Sector
In Pakistan, PR in private sector is still in its infancy. Most of the medium and small-size business/trade/industrial companies do not have a well defined PR programme. Wherever PR outfits exist emphasis seems to be on cheap publicity and fostering friendship with the representatives of the media. PR officials of some companies also get commercial films prepared, release advertisements to the friendly newspapers/journals and print leaflets, booklets, brochures, annual reports and house journals etc. However, PR staff in the private-sector generally seems reluctant to adopt, innovative and/or psychological approach which can yield better and quicker results. Some PROs are incapable of clearly determining the PR needs and goals of their organisation and recommend steps in carrying out the project. However, one learners only through experience and gradually acquires maturity in counselling/management.
The managements of some organisations think that the sole job of a PR person is to project ‘the boss’ or to do some odd jobs for him or the company. The think that like other modern outfits, it is prestigious to have a PRO but seem reluctant to assign him/her any meaningful role in the organization. Generally, people working as PROs in the private sector are not qualified or trained for those positions and anyone who is found redundant in the organization is given this position. Despite lake of interest, future of public relations in the private sector is quite bright.
Managements now fully realize that in this era of severe competition an organization must not only be-efficient but its efficiency should also be recognized by the intended publics. It is also now acknowledged that PR is important not only to the business but also to the government which comes to power and remains at the helm of affairs until it enjoys popular support. Hence, both the government and the enlightened industrial/commercial organizations try to keep the public opinion in their favour by launching suitable programmes of public relations aimed at convincing the people that their motto is larger good or welfare of the people and that their programmes/policies and products are better than those of their competitors.
Resultantly, the importance of PR practitioners, both in the public and the private sectors, has also increased in Pakistan. The day is not far when all big Organizations in Pakistan will have a strong and efficient PR progamme manned by persons quite senior in the hierarchy, as is the case in the developed countries.
Challenges and Prospects in Advertising in Pakistan:
In advertising one has a diverse range of jobs to choose from, to suit one’s inclination, talent and personality. The choice of working in an organization that manufactures certain goods or provides certain services, to look after the advertising of these goods or services would demand a particular kind of skills and interests. One can choose to work in an organization that creates advertising and distributes advertisements through different media. In such an organization there is a wide variety of jobs calling for different types of skills and creativity.
To make matters easier, one has to start with simple definitions. The manufacturer or provider of goods and services would be referred to at this stage as the advertiser or, may be, the marketing organization. The organization providing advertising services is the advertising agency. And advertising itself is the communication link between the product or service and the consumer. The media of course would include newspapers and magazines, radio, television, posters and everything that can be used to inform the customer about a product or service. Another expression that we shall be using at that stage is the market. After all, all goods and services are brought and sold in the market – not necessarily only a market or a fair, but also shops or retail outlets as they are called. In advertising we talk of the markets to mean really the consumers. The producer of goods or services markets its products and hence is referred to as a marketing organization. There are job opportunities in these areas in the field of advertising and advertising-related services. There is more. Today one can set up one’s own shop specializing in one particular area of advertising or advertising-related activity. This would call for a combination of many talents and different types of creativity.
Advertising in the sense of a communication link between a buyer and a seller or a producer and a consumer is really as old as civilization itself. As we know it today, its beginnings go back to more than 200 years. As an organized profession, advertising is relatively young. During the last two decades, and particularly since the beginning of the nineties, it has reached a fairly high level of maturity and sophistication comparable with the standards seen in the advanced industrialized countries. Not only has its progress been very fast in the last few years, its character has also undergone a radical change.
This is due to a number of factors. First, the communication revolution has set in motion a process of homogenization of consumer aspirations and value systems. This has also homogenized the very pattern and form of communication between the advertiser and the consumer. A more or less universal language of advertising is emerging, even though conditioned and modified by local usage and expressions, which are often a medley of western and Indian words, images, concepts and music. The communication explosion has invaded the home with its message of consumption-orientation. Multi-channeled television, through its entertainment programmes and advertising, has generated an awareness of entirely new concepts of living and with these, a desire for a whole range of consumer durables and non-durables, which had not been thought of earlier.
Secondly, to meet the growing consumer aspirations and value systems, particularly in terms of lifestyles, new products and services are coming in the market. These are meeting new needs, generated by new ways of living. This is leading to tremendous and even fierce competition among manufacturers of these products or providers of new services. This is because, although the Indian population is massive, the actual number of consumers of advertised goods or services is relatively small. Different manufacturing, marketing or services organizations are offering the same products. Thus the consumer has a wider choice. Sometimes two different products or services might meet similar needs. For example, the consumer can choose between two cola drinks manufactured by different companies. It is in this context that in advertising and marketing one talks of brand names, brands or branded products. With the same product being manufactured by different manufacturers, each company has its own name for its product. Thus one brand of sunflower oil competes against another brand. If you come to services, a number of banks today offer you mutual funds as do insurance companies. Here too the consumer has a choice and every mutual fund is trying to sell to the same consumer. Here is a challenge that people in the advertising profession face every day – how to win over a consumer for one brand against another and retain loyalty to the same brand, sale after sale?
Thirdly, such diversification of products or services and the expansion of the market have been possible because of the opening up and liberalization of the economy. There is now very or no restriction on the goods and services to be provided. Lower tax on personal incomes has increased the disposable surplus in the hands of the expanding middle class for discretionary purchases to meet the aspirations for better living. The liberal entry of foreign manufacturers and the reduction in import restrictions have made many new products and services more easily available than before. The hire-purchase system, bank finance and credit cards are accelerating this process of consumption-orientation in a section of the population. Advertising intervenes at every stage of this process of a desire being transformed into a purchase, of a concept of a product or service being transformed into a sale.
Advertising has now become part of everyday life. Today advertising influences every day’s purchase decision, consciously or subconsciously. Young people, the main target of advertising, speak the language of advertising, sing advertising jingles, dress according to the fashions set by role models and stereotypes in advertising. Advertising, in turn, picks up the language and the behavior pattern of the consumer, particularly the youth. Many talented young people seek a career in advertising, not mere job.
This environment and wider choice of goods or services also mean increasing consciousness of quality and price among the consumers. The competition thus becomes concerned with sensitivity to consumer expectations and even the environmental conditions and processes of purchase decisions. It is here that communication has to intervene. It is this wider dimension of advertising today that offers unprecedented challenges and makes stringent demands on creativity, imagination and innovative approaches from every person in the advertising profession, whatever be his or her specific job in the communication link between the product or service and the consumer. It should be obvious from this discussion that advertising today is an integral part of the socio-economic and the cultural system, too. It is linked to the distribution aspect of the economic system. By creating demands, which might not have existed before, advertising helps determine the types of goods or services to be offered and their quantum. Hence, advertising can even influence the allocation of resources in different sectors of the economy. What is more, advertising today has even become the communication link between political parties and the electorate. It also plays a role in mobilizing public opinion and even action on social and ideological issues, such as environment protection or prevention of AIDS.
No wonder, the annual average rate of growth of advertising is much higher than that of the economy. It is obvious that the opening up of the economy, which had begun very haltingly in the mid-seventies, gathered some momentum in the mid-eighties and has now acquired considerably more speed from the beginning of the current decade, has contributed significantly to the current boom in advertising. It is this situation which is opening up wide and diverse opportunities in the profession.
Surely, when marketing organizations spend large amount of money year after year on advertising, they would expect the most effective returns in terms of the quality of sales. It is true, as we shall see later, that advertising is only one component of a whole diverse range of activities that combine to effect a sale of product or service. Nevertheless, it is possible to measure today the effectiveness of advertising as an information and persuasion link between a product or service and the consumer. It is not merely a question of a number of competing brands. There is also the problem of proliferating media, through which advertisements reach the consumer. Here again is a challenge to the creativity and innovativeness of an advertising professional – how to choose between radio and television, between one television channel and another, between the electronic media and the newspapers or different periodicals. The point is that, considering the problems faced, the money available is always limited.
Q.5 Describe the development of advertising in Pakistan. How is it similar or different from rest of the world?
Development of Advertising in Pakistan:
Big organizations in Pakistan had a restricted spectrum of advertising alternatives for a substantial number of years and electrifying original media frequently obtainable all through the globe were as good as unheard of. However, al that became the past in the late nineties as the need for unique types of ads grew as a bigger number of organizations competed for a portion of the spreading market. One such form was digital printing that could be employed for many indoor and outdoor purposes.
Outdoor ads and store signage in Pakistan were mostly oil painted and were challenged with different concerns such as fading of colors and mediocre composition, with most hoardings and shop frames being manufactured with low gauge metal sheets or plastic. A number of sign manufacturers offered top quality signs with accurately painted visuals, but the effort it consumed to construct these signs was huge because of the physical process.
One other established type of outdoor advertising was neon with significant visual effects, like lighting several colors, shown on signs. The neon sector was flourishing prior to the start of digital print media in Pakistan in spite of numerous integral difficulties. Neon displays were most valuable at nighttime and provided little in terms of thrill through the day and were fairly high on repair expenses with neon tubes needing replacement pretty regularly.
The third largely prevalent type of advertising in Pakistan comprised offset printed posters, which were mostly consumed indoors or applied in huge quantities on municipal walls. Offset posters were however inadequate in height and width and were challenged with issues such as color fading and damaging too easily. Even the finest quality displays did not sustain their originality for more than a tiny number of days.
Screen-printing for posters was also well established in Pakistan. While automated techniques were utilized everywhere on the globe, Pakistan’s sector was still essentially a labor-intensive process. Screen-printing was convenient and widely attainable in the major cities. However, the quality was critically below average and much the same as the other established media faced issues like color fading and regular theft.
The primary digitally printed large billboards or skins, as regularly alluded to in the business, were obtained from international organizations in countries like Australia. The impression generated by these exquisite quality skins was the beginning of a swift and much required transformation in the advertising sector in Pakistan. Organizations rushed to arrange orders for printed signs and the face of outdoor media in Pakistan totally changed from then on. Within some years Pakistan had some of its own limited print shops and with economical technologies quite easily purchasable from China, the printing sector turned into an established and beneficial industry.
Advertising in troubled times:
The last decade has seen rapid transformation in the advertising industry. Media development, especially brisk advances in alternate social media, has altered the way both corporations and consumers treat advertisement. In varying forms, it has become one of the most essential components of the corporate economy.
There is nothing glamorous, rosy and fancy about this industry – advertising, in simple word is nothing more than just a plain ‘communication.’ Advertising has no boundaries, it is not confined to some specific sectors and businesses only; rather it can be attached to anything present in this world, including feelings and emotions. It is highly imaginative and exclusive amalgamation of public service and marketing strategies.
Despite innovations, its basic theme has remained consistent. It is a form of communication used to persuade audiences to take action with respect to products, ideas, or services. The desired result is to drive consumer behavior regarding commercial offerings. However, with time its intensity has increased. Specialised advertisement organisations have mushroomed and competition is intense. Companies tend to spend increasing amounts on marketing and advertisement strategies. Led by multinationals, the advertisement industry has become enormously complex and successfully impacts consumer behaviour to a large extent.
Over 25 years of my professional experience, I have experienced several trends and shifts in the industry from close proximity. I feel that the legacy of communication has unfolded over the past few decades, leaving unconventional prints in the history of advertising. With the high involvement of technology and advanced media, several new communication channels have exploded over time.
Regardless of the fluctuations of the market and advancements of communication channels, the significance of advertisement remains the same. It is a general belief that advertising during economic downturns is illogical, whereas in actual fact it provides impetus to a struggling economy.
Advertising plays a vital role in every country’s economy as it is practically the most effective tool for communicating with end consumers directly. It is the crucial element that initiates the economic cycle, resulting in the success for industry and therefore the economy. It creates awareness of brands, thus accelerating their sales. The sales bring profit to companies that result in the expansion of the whole industry. The expansion, ultimately, helps the economy to grow and jobs opportunities start flourishing, thus strengthening buying power of the consumers. The buying power then leads to overall sustainable economical growth.
In Pakistan, advertising is strongly affected as corporate companies are rapidly deducting budgets. It is believed that advertising is not one of the essential pillars of industry. This belief is partially due to lack of education and limited revenues whereas to my knowledge every company’s growth has a relationship of direct proportionality with advertising success.
In crisis lies opportunity, and Pakistan’s present predicament offers positive prospects to the advertisement industry as well as corporations. If companies employ this industry in the right manner, they can stimulate commercialism at a time when the economy is in severe need of the spending multiplier. Also, as the ad-industry expands, it will tap creative talent and provide employment opportunities, triggering activity that benefits the economy as a whole. As I see it, advertising is a dynamic and diverse profession where every day brings new creative challenges.
Talking specifically about the economy of Pakistan, at this stage it is not only necessary for corporate companies to increase investments in advertising, but it is also essential for them to start believing in what miracles the advertising can do.
Similar or Different from rest of the world
Advertising is an expression and part of an economic system. Each economic system has an interesting relationship with the social system, political system and cultural value. Whatever be the character of the economic system, there are three basic features which are common to all:
a) determination of goods and services and the quantities to be produced or offered;
b) allocation of resources according to priorities of production-mainly land, labor and capital; and
c) distribution of goods and services among individuals and groups. We are not concerned here about the relative importance of state intervention and market determination of these three processes.
These three processes condition the development of every society. Advertising is a major component of each one of these three processes. If advertising is a process of mediation between the producer of goods and services and the consumer, to that extent it contributes to the development not merely of the economy but also of society. If we look at development as the overall transformation of society and not merely as the statistical growth of the economy, or the gross domestic product, or the per capita income, then all advertising is socially relevant.
Modern advertising is a product of the capitalist economic system, in which the operation of the free market by and large determines the three basic features of the economic system, referred to above. It is in this context that advertising operates. When we say that modern advertising is a product of the capitalist system, it means that it serves the socio-economic needs of mass industrial production for a mass market. This situation was created by the industrial revolution under capitalism. By serving such an economic system, advertising also promotes this system. We must also remember that advertising would continue to play the same role in different economic system, as long as goods and services are produced and offered for sale in the market.
Mass production demands a mass market and a mass distribution system. The very survival of this production system demands its continuous expansion. Such an expansion means also the expansion of the market, beyond the seats of production and even beyond the boundaries of the country. This may be called the horizontal, spatial or geographical expansion of the market. Such an expansion’ is both national and international. At the same time there is also a vertical expansion of the market. The objective is to bring the entire society within the orbit of the market. This does not mean only providing the individual or the family with the resources to purchase goods and services in the market. A disposable surplus is not enough. A ‘psychic desire’ to consume more and different products has also to be created. Expansion of the market also means the creation of new goods and services and making them acceptable to the consumer. Without such a continuous expansion of the market, the capitalist economy cannot survive. This is a constant process of the renewal and increase of capital passing through the market.
For this, people have to be informed, motivated and persuaded. With a mass market, national and international, this is only possible through a specialized communication system. Thus, modem advertising evolved, to meet precisely this requirement of the capitalist economic system. Its social relevance in the industrialist/capitalist system is to direct the desires of human beings, latent and expressed, and their needs, in such a way, as to ensure the continuation and expansion of sales of goods and services, so essential to sustain mass production by accumulated capital. Advertising is thus an integral Component of the mass distribution system of industrial capitalism. In the process of bringing consumers in touch with products or services, advertising also helps create new consumers. Thus, it is involved in the social production of consumers, on which industrial capitalism thrives. Advertising is thus not only a product of industrial capitalism, but also its promoter.
Industrial capitalism, for the very purpose of its growth and survival, has had to bring together and integrate the multi-structured, disintegrated pre-capitalist society into the mass market. It is this process that has created the nation-state. By bringing together mass production and the mass of consumers, advertising has historically played a significant role in this process of integration and nation building. By creating a common ‘psychic desire’ to consume, it has succeeded in bridging the gap between diverse social and cultural behavior patterns, thus nurturing a homogeneous national culture. To industrial capitalism and advertising the human being is primarily a consumer. In the market place there is no difference, in essence, among human beings in social or economic terms. They are all consumers.
The human being in the market place is at the receiving end of a veritable barrage of messages aimed at the unquestioned acceptance of a way of life and a value system. Advertising does not sell goods or services but the benefits derived from them. These benefits might be inherent in the product or service, or purely psychological; a creation of the images conjured up by advertising. The promotion of a psychology of more and more consumption sustains also a value system, which is based on ruthless competition of individual achievement, which alone enables ever-expanding consumption of an increased range and variety of goods and services. It such a way of life that alone can sustain an economic system based on the sole objective of maximization of profits. In this entire environment, the relevance of advertising is not only economic, but also social and cultural, and in the final analysis., even political. After all a particular economic structure can be sustained by a relevant political structure.
From the logic of these arguments emerge certain specific aspects of the role of advertising in a capitalist economy as a catalyst of development. First, advertising serves a social and even developmental purpose by providing people with information about goods and services available and also about new products and services. Secondly, advertising stimulates the economy -and is thus an instrument of development. Without advertising or marketing communication, products and services could not be sold in sufficient quantities. Without sales, factories would close down causing unemployment. This would further reduce demand and lead to further closing down of factories and a chain reaction would set in. On the other hand, advertising promotes sales. Higher sales mean more production, lower costs and economies of scale. This creates conditions for lower prices and hence more sales and more employment. As such this ensures the growth of the economy.
Thirdly, advertising is a component of a democratic society. The essence of democracy is that people have a choice and the right to exercise that choice. In the democratic economic system a variety of goods and services is available to choose from. Advertising enables the consumer to make the choice. The fourth aspect follows, in a way, from the third. Advertising creates conditions for every human being to acquire earned rewards. The way of life, that advertising opens up, provides motivation for hard work to earn enough to achieve such a way of life. This too is a democratic right-the right to spend one’s earnings the way one likes and where a democratic system is expected to provide opportunities for the exercise of such a right.
From the fourth aspect follows the fifth. Advertising stimulates productivity. Harder work to earn more to achieve socially upward mobility, stimulated by advertising, naturally leads to higher productivity. This in turn stimulates the economy and development. Finally, all these add up to social change. We must, however, bear in mind the reality that all these factors can operate only under ideal conditions. The market does not and cannot always reflect the real social demand. This is because capitalist enterprises in the advanced industrialized countries have become so powerful and the search for maximum profits is so predominant’ a concern, that they often decide what goods and services should be brought into the market so as to secure the maximum profit with the least investment. In such a system, every single one of the aspects of the role of advertising mentioned above gets distorted to some extent. In such a situation advertising creates a demand, which may not be economically or socially relevant for the immediate needs of the vast majority of the people, and hence the nation. Advertisements tell consumers what to buy. With emergence of monopolies, competition is often eliminated and advertising manipulates the consumer, giving him or her no opportunity to exercise a rational choice.
In such a situation, advertising becomes a major economic activity. As you advertise more, faster the expansion of the market, profitable volume of sales and recovery of investment in research and development. The nature of the economy in which such a situation prevails, though interrupted by increasingly longer periods of imbalances, has been described in a study of USA’s needs and resources by the 20th Century Fund: “In a scarcity economy the consumer needs no conditioning to make him want enough food to keep him alive, sufficient clothing and shelter to keep warm. But in an economy of luxury and plenty, the consumer has to be persuaded to want, for example, an electric blanket, with separate thermostatic control for each side of the bed, or an air-conditioned automobile with power steering and a hydraulic drive. This constant ‘education’ of the consumer to desire products never heard of before is just as essential to the smooth functioning of an economy which is geared to turn out a steady flood of new and different products as are an adequate supply of electric energy and plentiful raw materials.
Point out various obstacles to economic development of Pakistan and also narrate the current status of Pakistan’s economy.
Obstacles to Economic Development in Pakistan
Anything that makes slow the process of economic development is called obstacles to its functioning. The various obstacles to the Economic development 0″ Pakistan may be categorized as economic, social, cultural, administrative and political.
Inadequacy of natural resources
Natural resources are comprised of geographical configuration, soil, climate water resources, minerals etc. No country in the world is self-sufficient in this respect but fair degree of resources is needed for economic growth. In this respect, the position of Pakistan is not so discouraging but the overa’. position of Pakistan ..in this respect is not so rich. There are problems of salinity, water logging, floods, droughts, lack of forests, oil and gas, iror. gypsum, coal, copper, water, etc.
Under-developed human resources.
The labour force in developing countries, especially in Pakistan, is illiterate and unskilled. Furthermore, it is not up to the mark in physical health an^ energy needed for developmental activities.
Shortcomings in technology
According to the latest statistics, sixty-five percent populations are dependentupon agriculture but this sector is carried on with primitive technique? There is a severe lack of sophisticated and automatic machinery in small and large scale industries. The output is not up to the mark quantitatively as we as qualitatively. We cannot export our products to earn foreign exchange On the other hand; we import many products and lose our foreign exchange Due to backwardness in technology only raw material is exported.
Inadequate financial resources and capital formation
Lack of physical capital in the sense of buildings, machinery and tools, raw materials and other intermediate goods is a serious obstacle to the economic development of Pakistan. They are produced by investment resulting from savings. But our saving ration is very low and not enough for capital formation.
Unfavourable economic institutions
The functioning of banks, insurance companies and stock exchanges is not up to the mark. They cannot provide money on better interest rates which is necessary for capital formation. Primitive techniques are used in industrial and agricultural small scale production. The law of inheritance divides the land into uneconomic units which are not suitable for farming with modern machinery.
– Population pressure
It occurs when the number of population exceeds the resources of the country. It also happens when medical facilities decrease death rate and family planning is not so effective due to religious and cultural values of the society. Latest population figures show that population of Pakistan is 124.45 million and growth rate is 3 percent. In 1981, total population of the country was 84.25 million (Pakistan Basic Facts — 1994). Population growth increases dependency i.e. it increases the number of children who are consumers only. They contribute nothing in the production of the society.
– Unfavourable health conditions
There is a severe shortage of medical facilities in Pakistan. According to the figures of 1993, there were only 796 hospitals, 4144 dispensaries, 63003 registered doctors, 2401 registered dentists, 20245 registered nurses, 3920 registered L.H.Vs, and 1918 persons per doctor for the population of 124.45 million in Pakistan (Pakistan Basic Facts — 1994). Therefore, masses are still subject to different diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis, typhoid etc. They are physically weak due to mal/under-nourishment. These problems lessen the productive efficiency.
– Mass illiteracy
It is estimated that in 1994 literacy rate was 36.8 percent in Pakistan which is awfully low. Illiterate people find it difficult to organize and pursue their economic activities. They do not know “technical-know-how” and cannot adjust themselves on proper lines which effect the productive capabilities, saving ratio, and capital formation.
– Cultural Obstacles
Cultural obstacles spring from people’s conventions, attitudes, and beliefs. In the social normative values of Pakistan, family planning, female education and female job- are considered unislamic, socially detestable, and against the social values. Heavy expenditures are incurred on birth, marriage, circumcision, and death occasions Exhibition of weapons, jewllery, and buildings are salient features of our society and are considered symbols of prestige.
Administrative Obstacles and Political Incompetence
The political and democratic process was disrupted several times by martial law regimes which lacked constitutional validity and support of the masses. The democratic regimes in Pakistan cannot be called democratic in its true sense and as a result political and economic institutions were not established properly. Administrative machinery is inefficient because appointments are made on political basis, not on merit basis, the administrative personnel is dishonest and corrupt and there is no system of checks and balances in Pakistan. The political leadership is self-centered and .the masses are politically immature. Politicians deceive the masses through catchy slogans and the masses cost their votes on the basis of baradari, region, gender, and vested interests and not on the basis of competency and capabilities of politicians.
Lack of National Spirit
This has been manifested in the form of regional, provincial, tribal, and similar other considerations in our body politics. Masses are thinking in racial, provincial, religious, ethnic, and tribal terms and their vote behaviour is influenced by these bonds Politicians exploit these feelings and serve their own interests. The speeches and tones of the politicians are totally changed indifferent provinces. These politicians are creating a sense of deprivation in the masses of different provinces and ethnic groups. Media has failed to create the feelings of federation in the masses. These developments have led the country toward economic, political, and social crises and disrupted the process of economic development.
State of the Pakistan Economy
There have been significant developments in respect of a number of macroeconomic indicators during fiscal 1995-96. The GDP growth rate increased form 4.4 percent in 1994-95 to 6.1 percent in 1995-96 slightly improving upon the average growth rate of the last four decades. The agriculture sector grows by 6.7 percent with record production figures for rice and wheat. Cotton output recorded an increase of 21.8 percent. The budget deficit is now estimated around 5.0 percent of GDP. Fiscal checks were introduced to contain growth in expenditure and measures were taken to bring about greater elasticity in government’s revenues. Tight monetary policy during the year kept monetary expansion down to 8.4 percent during July-March 1995-96 against 9.8 percent in the corresponding period last year. This was within the annual expansion target of 12.1 percent.
With a view to addressing the concern of low income groups government have pursued policies in the social sectors to improve the standard of living of the common man by improving literacy rate, improving the status of women, curtailing population growth and providing primary health care to the poor.
Q.5 Discuss the various newspaper chains in Pakistan.
Various Newspaper Chains in Pakistan:
The typical Pakistani newspaper is of regular rather than tabloid size, averaging about 20 pages per issue. Most newspapers have a weekend, midweek, and magazine section. All the leading newspapers, including Jang , Nawa-e-Waqt , Dawn , The Nation The News International , and Business Recorder , have online editions
The All-Pakistan Newspaper Society (APNS) estimated that the total combined circulation figure for daily newspapers and other periodicals was 3.5 million in 1997. Print media included 424 dailies, 718 weeklies, 107 fortnightlies, and 553 monthlies. Deficient literacy rates, urban orientation of the press, and the high price of newspapers are considered primary factors contributing to low circulation rates.
Jang Group is the top daily newspaper with a circulation of 850,000. Nawa-e-Waqt holds second place with 500,000, followed by Pakistan (279,000), Khabrain (232,000), The News (120,000), Dawn (109,000), and Business Recorder (22,000).
The three most influential newspapers in Pakistan are the daily Dawn in English, the daily Jang in Urdu, and the daily Business Recorder in the area of business and finance. The average price of a newspaper varies from Rs 5 to Rs 15. For example, Business Recorder costs Rs 7 per issue.
Digicom, a private e-mail provider, brought Internet access to Karachi in 1995. Nationwide local access was established within one year, and by 1999 was available to 600,000 computers, 60,000 users by 3,102 Internet hosts. Internet capabilities provided news media with a means for reaching overseas Pakistanis. All leading newspapers, including Jang , Nawa-e-WaqtDawnThe Nation,The News International , and Business Recorder , have online editions. In addition, Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation and Pakistan Television Corporation both have web sites accessible to the public.
Three main groups dominate Pakistan: the Jang Group, the Herald Group, and the Nawae-Waqt Group. Jang Publications is the largest media group and holds a virtual monopoly of Urdu readership in Sindh, Rawalpindi-Islamabad federal territory, and major shares in Lahore and Quetta. Jang also publishes the largest circulating weekly magazine in Urdu, Akhbare-Jehan , and two evening papers, the Daily News and Awam . The News , the first Pakistani newspaper to use computers in all steps of production, is also a publication of the Jang Group.
Pakistan Herald Publications Ltd.:
Pakistan Herald Publications Ltd. publishes Dawn , which has had a dominant hold over Karachi readership. The Herald Group also publishes the Star (an English evening paper) and The Herald (an influential English monthly). The group also began a monthly that focuses on the Internet, entitled Spider . Publications under the Herald Group target the upper class and the better-educated segment of Pakistani society and consequently practice a liberal editorial policy
The Nawa-e-Waqt Group publishes Nawa-e-Waqt and also started The Nation , an English daily. This group also publishes Family , an Urdu weekly.
Several other significant groups and independent publications also exist. The notable daily newspaper chains that have started during the late 1990s and early 2000s include Khabrain , PakistanAusaf , and Din . The Frontier Post , Business Recorder , and Amn are also other important dailies.
Political parties own two major newspapers: the Jasarat , controlled by the conservative Jannat-e-Islami, and Mussawat , controlled by the Pakistan People’s Party.
From 1964 into the early 1990s, the National Press Trust acted as the government’s front to control the press. The state, however, no longer publishes daily newspapers; the former Press Trust sold or liquidated its newspapers and magazines in the early 1990s.
In April 1989, Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto’s government decided to end this manipulative practice. By replacing the permit system with a free and open import of newsprint at market prices, the government removed its interventionist dimension in controlling an essential raw material for the press and also ended the corruption that had grown up around the issuance and receipt of the newsprint import permits.
In 1991, however, the first government of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif restored the system of issuing permits. The Audit Bureau of Circulation, which functions under the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, was responsible for assessing the circulation and print orders of newspapers and magazines and issuing certificates legitimizing these figures. The bureau certificates became the basis on which journals were able to import proportionate quantities of newsprint and secure government-controlled advertising through the clearance given by the Press Information Department. Corrupt practices have been associated with the ABC operation.
The current government of General Musharraf has considerable leverage over the press through its control over newsprint, its substantial budget for advertising and public interest campaigns, and its ability to enforce regulations.
Privately owned newspapers freely discuss public policy and criticize the government. They report remarks made by opposition politicians, and their editorials reflect a wide range of views. The effort to ensure that newspapers carry their statements or press releases sometimes leads to undue pressure by local police, political parties, ethnic, sectarian, and religious groups, militant student organizations, and occasionally commercial interests. Such pressure is a common feature of journalism and can include physical violence, sacking of offices, intimidation and beating of journalists, and interference with distribution of newspapers. Journalists working in small provincial towns and villages encounter more difficulties from arbitrary local authorities and influential individuals than their big-city counterparts do. Violence against and intimidation of journalists, however, is a nationwide problem.
Government leaks, although not uncommon, are managed carefully; it is common knowledge that journalists, who are routinely underpaid, are on the unofficial payrolls of many competing interests, and the military (or elements within it) is presumed to be no exception. For example, according to the All Pakistan Newspaper Society, favorable press coverage of the Prime Minister’s family compound south of Lahore was widely understood to have been obtained for a price. Rumors of intimidation, heavy-handed surveillance, and even legal action to quiet the unduly curious or non-deferential reporter are common.
Special-interest lobbies are not in existence in Pakistan as in the United States and elsewhere, but political pressure groups and leaders include the military, ulema (clergy), landowners, industrialists, and some small merchants.
A Print, Press and Publications Ordinance, requiring the registration of printing presses and newspapers, was allowed to lapse in 1997 after several years of waning application. In practice, registering a new publication is a simple administrative act and is not subjected to political or government scrutiny. There are no registration or licensing processes for journalists. New newspapers and presses are required to register themselves with the local administration.