Writing for radio

Writing for radio:
Writing for radio is writing for millions including every type of people, educated, uneducated, young and old, men and women from every section of the society. Radio is generally listened in houses where all the members of the family move together. It is therefore necessary that nothing should be there against moral ethics of our society. There are five key principles to be kept in mind while writing radio news. It is spoken, it is immediate, it is person to person, it is heard only once and it is sound only.
While it is true that radio news scripts are shorter than most news stories written for print, the radio news writer is still obliged to tell a complete and clear story. Facts needed to put the story into perspective and provide balance which must be included.
The most important point regarding style in radio news writing is simplicity. If the language is too complex or difficult it is possible the story will not be completely understood. Radio news writers generally apply a few rules of their own to help them get the information across in the simplest form. These are; keep the sentences short, avoid complex construction and use basic words not colloquialism.
Writers are encouraged to get into the substance of the story and this is best done by starting with a good declarative sentence that presents the most important information. The listener is not to be overburdened with too many facts in the lead. The listener should know immediately what has happened. Don’t leave him wondering. Writing news for different’audipnce also needs different approaches within the country, some news bulletins are for the whole people, while some are beamed for different provinces or for particular ethnic pockets. In the external services news is prepared for foreign listeners. All of them deserve special awareness on the part of the editor.
Preparation of News bulletins:
There are many categories of news bulletins in our part of the world. In Radio Pakistan the main categories are; national, world service (for overseas Pakistanis), regional, local, external and general overseas slow speed bulletins. National bulletins are meant for the entire population of the- country and are broadcast both in Urdu and English. News bulletins for overseas Pakistanis are broadcast in Urdu in the World Service. Regional bulletins are broadcast in the regional languages. Local bulletins contain news and announcements of local interest in a particular city or area. External bulletins are broadcast for overseas listeners in their respective languages. The general overseas slow speed bulletins are broadcast at dictation pace for use in our-embassies in different countries. In the preparation of these bulletins we have to go through the process of selecting and editing news and arranging them in order of importance. In case of longed duration bulletins headlines are also given. The headlines call for clearest and tightest possible writing.
The general News Room is the centre of activity in the preparation and production of news bulletins. The wire copy, dispatches of reporters, monitoring
reports, hand outs and press releases are the main sources of news production- system. Whatever lands in the news room undergoes a regular process of sorting. The editor has got to he quite selective and choosy. This is because of the limited space available for news cast. The skill to reject redundant material and select useable material is one of the basic requirements of a good radio editor.
Unlike newspapers, a radio bulletin is to be prepared by not more than two editors who select stories from large quantity of material. The editor is supposed to be quick enough to keep on selecting the probable’s and rejecting the useless. Then comes the stage of drafting. Before handing over the bulletin to the newsreader it is arranged in a logical order.
Problems and pressures:
The main challenge before a radio editor is to make the copy simple and easy to understand. The editor is supposed to be capable of writing simple and clear language and making crisp news draft. Difficult and useless words and phrases are to be avoided. Unlike periodicals and daily newspapers, radio news is always ‘immediate’ in nature. If it is official medium, the official obligations are also there. In radio there are generally no restrictions or specific guidelines. The editor is required to determine whether a particular item is to go on the air or not. Radio editor not only faces problem of short space but also of time as well. Preparing a bulletin is like’ running against the time. Every regular bulletin has to go on the air at a fixed time.
Almost in every bulletin several items are read unrehearsed by the news reader if drafted later after the bulletin has started. Smart radio writers deal with such ‘Problems stories’ successfully as they are usually able to make sound judgments quickly and avoiding pit falls.
Presently news bulletins in Pakistan are broadcast in a flat manner without voice inserts and other actualities. This makes the news bulletins lifeless. Voice reports and sound actualities should be inserted in news and current affairs programmers to make them more interesting and credible. As a consequence of the. present style of news production the radio editor in our country has little knowledge about tape editing techniques which include cutting of recorded material and dubbing etc. Editing of interviews for news bulletins is also a bit difficult which needs skill and training. ,
Our all news bulletins are translated versions of the master copy (prepared in English). This reflects lack of confidence on the part of those who are at the helm of affairs. Translated copy is always unnatural and complicated. If English is replaced . by Urdu as a medium of editing it will bring about many advantages. It will also lead to a better and close “liaison between the national and regional languages and help to promote national integration.
News reading is another integral part of broadcast journalism. After all it i’ the newsreader who conveys the contents of reports to the listener. The news reader should not only possess a good voice but a lot of other qualities including good accent and pronunciation, art of effective delivery, correct use of pauses and stress, intelligent reading and complete confidence.
The news reader is the real messenger of any news organization. The message should be transmitted in an effective and pleasant manner. Both the message and its communication should be faultless. Often a radio station is identified through the style of its news reading.
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Electronic Media History & Challenges

In a world influenced by satellite and cyber-space technology, electronic media has a highly significant role to play in shaping the life and destiny of nations. The visual media, notably television, has a stupendous, impact upon moulding human minds and opinion.
In the given scenario the electronic media has an onerous responsibility in addressing the socio-economic problems of societies and disseminating unbiased information. This responsibility can be effectively shouldered if the media treads the path of accuracy and objectivity in transmission of its programmes.
BRIEF HISTORY:
Since independence in 1947 the electronic media in Pakistan remained dominated by the state-run Pakistan Television and Pakistan Broadcasting Corporations. Pakistan Television was launched in November 1964 which switched over to colour transmission 12 years later.
As access to diverse sources of information was limited and people could not keep abreast with the rapidly growing developments around them it was decided by the govt opened up electronic media to the private sector in the country. Soon after, in March 2002, it was decided to set up Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority (PEMRA) with a view to facilitate, licence and regulate the growth of electronic media in the private sector.
REGULATORY FRAMEWORK:
The Authority set up under an Ordinance has now been made a statutory corporate body with the passing of PEMRA Amendment Act 2007 by the Parliament. The task of regulating the electronic media in a multi ethnic society with diverse socio cultural norms is indeed a daunting one. PEMRA has been given the mandate to improve the standards of information, education and entertainment; to widen the choice available to the people for news, current affairs and other programmes; to facilitate the devolution of responsibility and to ensure transparency by optimising free flow of information.
To carryout its mandate effectively PEMRA has formulated rules, regulations, code of ethics for licensing and functioning of Satellite TV, Cable TV distribution, FM Radio and other electronic media technologies. The rules have been prepared in consultation with stake-holders and comparative study of international media regulatory practices. The Rules, Regulations and Codes have been formulated with the aim of safeguarding our national ideology, national heritage, socio-cultural norms, ensuring a level playing field to stake-holders, plurality and diversity and discouraging monopolistic trends.
All operational decisions including conferment of licenses to TV, Cable Operators, FM Radio etc are taken independently by the Authority comprising representatives of the public and government officials. Through frequent consultation with stakeholders and the public and open bidding it is ensured that the entire process of licensing is made absolutely transparent. Council of Complaints comprising representatives of the people have been set up at the Federal and Provincial capitals to redress public complaints against any violation of code of ethics by media broadcasters. The Councils are independent public forums with no govt intervention or role. Their performance has been excellent.
PRESENT STATUS OF PRIVATE ELECTRONIC MEDIA:
In a short span of five years the country has witnessed a massive spurt in the number of TV channels and FM Radio stations in the private sector which is, unmatched in the South Asian region and perhaps elsewhere. This boom is owed to the government’s unequivocal commitment to a free media and the proactive role played by PEMRA in facilitating the growth of the electronic media. The unprecedented growth of TV channels, Cable TV and launch of FM Radio stations has indeed contributed remarkably in raising the standards of public awareness and literacy. A glance at the following facts and figures on licensing of media amply substantiates the massive growth which has taken place in electronic media in the private sector in the last 3/4 years.

CATEGORY NUMBER OF LICENSES:

i. Satellite TV Channels 67

ii. Landing Rights Permission

to TV Channels. 29

iii.FM Radio licenses. 116

iv. Cable TV Distribution Operations 2168

v. Multimedia, Multi Channels
    Distribution System (MMDS) 6

vi. Internet Protocol Television

     (IPTV) 2

vii. Mobile TV licence 2

Today these Pakistani Satellite TV channels are providing a wide variety of programmes in Urdu (national language) and English including news, entertainment and sports programmes. In talk shows and panel discussions the channels air programmes which portray candid opinion of all segments of society including criticism of the establishment. Popular channels include GEO TV, ARY TV, DAWN News, AAJ, Express, Waqt, Channel-5, KTN, Indus, Khyber TV, Sindh TV, TV-1, APNA TV. Around a score applications are under process.

Landing rights permission have been given to 29 channels operating from abroad. These include BBC, CNN, Sky News, HBO, Cartoon Network, Ten Sports, ESPN, Fox News, Al Jazeera, Star Channels. In addition applications from a large number of foreign TV channels for landing rights permission are being processed.

A total of 116 FM Radio licenses have been given for entertainment and educational purposes in five phases through open and transparent bidding. Of these, 93 FM Radio stations are already on the air in all corners of the country. Mainly these stations broadcast programmes on topics of interest to the community residing within the reach of the station such as education, health, civic hygiene and economic matters.

The stations are operating in big and small cities and towns including Islamabad, Karachi, Lahore, Peshawar, Quetta, Faisalabad, Hyderabad, Sukkur, Gujrat, Gujranwala, Mardan, Gawadar, and Nawabshah. After the earthquake 8 gratis licences were issued on priority basis which went into operation within 10 days of the tragedy. With no communications left in the wake of the disaster, these stations served as a communication network in the affected areas for providing information advice, social services and also entertainment.

The FM Radio licenses include non-commercial licenses given to leading Universities teaching Mass Communication. The underlying idea is to promote the development of skilled personnel and journalists for employment in the electronic media industry. The Universities include University of the Punjab, University of Peshawar, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad, Lahore College for Women University, Karachi University, Gomal University D.I. Khan, Fatima Jinnah Women’s University, Rawalpindi, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad.

The next phase of FM Radio licensing is aimed at setting up stations at each district of the country by the end of year ie 2008. After fulfilling constitutional and legal formalities, PEMRA’s jurisdiction has been extended to Azad Jammu and Kashmir where six FM Radio licenses have been given. The stations are operating at Muzaffarabad, Mirpur, Kotli, Rawalakot, Dhirkot, Bhimber.

Six licenses have been issued for Multimedia Multi Channel Distribution System (MMDS). This system is a state of the art wireless distribution system that enables distribution of upto 60 Satellite TV channels. Licenses have been given for Islamabad, Lahore, Karachi.

Two Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) licenses have been given to mainstream companies which could help bring about a qualitative change in the distribution system. Pakistan is proud to be the sixth country to adopt this technology in the Asia Pacific region. Besides, two licenses for Mobile TV distribution have been given to companies on a trial basis.

5. ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTION:

Due to the government’s investment friendly policies the country has witnessed a remarkable economic growth particularly over the last five years. This overall national growth has been conducive for the development of the electronic media industry in the private sector. According to estimates there has been a cumulative investment of approximately U.S. dollar one and half billion in the electronic media industry. New jobs to more-than 150,000 people of diversified skills and qualifications have been provided. In addition, over 7 million people have been accommodated through indirect employment.

With he current growth rate of more than seven percent per annum, it is estimated that the cumulative investment in the electronic media industry will reach nearly U.S. dollar two billion by the end of the current financial year in June, 2008. This expansion in investment would in turn have a multiplier effect on increasing job opportunities for skilled media personnel and journalists, expanding work of media production houses, advertising agencies and proliferation of the performing arts.

6. PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES:

Lifting of cross media restrictions in the PEMRA Act 2007 coupled with the government’s commitment to a free media, the electronic media is likely to grow at a much faster pace than before in the days to come. This in turn will help develop various segments of the media industry. To ensure a level playing field, restrain monopolistic trends and provide equal opportunities to all stakeholders associated with the electronic media industry, appropriate codes of conduct will need to be adopted.
On its part, PEMRA is endeavouring to ensure Self-Regulation by media. Technological advancements have given rise to issues of convergence. These are being addressed by the media regulatory authority in consultation with the telecommunication regulatory authority. To realise the targets of UN Millennium Development Goals, a switch over from the analog to the digital system in TV and Radio operations is being made. State of the art digital head ends will replace the existing anomalous distribution medium.
Even though at a nascent stage, the Pakistan electronic media has succeeded in evolving a culture of harmony, facilitation and conducive environment for investment in the media sector. Tariffs have been rationalised in order to encourage growth of private.
Electronic media within the country as compared to the earlier situation where it was cheaper and convenient to uplink from abroad. As a result 19 Media houses have shifted back to Pakistan and many more are planning to come back. The licence fee and News Gathering uplinking permission fee has been rationalised. Coupled with this, all unnecessary procedures have been cut down and clear time lines laid down.
In fact, this is the primary reason why Pakistan is today singled out in the Region for exemplary growth of media. In fact it would not be an over statement that electronic media is probably one sector where “One Window Operation” facility actually exists. However, certain fundamental principles and parameters have been evolved through a consultative process with the stakeholders. No decision is taken without getting inputs from the stakeholders. In fact recently the stakeholders have produced a Voluntary Code of Conduct which is a clear manifestation to PEMRA’s positive policies and belief in Self-Regulation.
The performance of PEMRA has not only been acclaimed by local stakeholders and viewers, it has also been acknowledged all over the world. If PEMRA can sustain its performance of the past 2 years, there is nothing which can stop it from becoming the leading Regulator and Facilitator in the region.
Rural journalists urge more community radio stations
Jul 08, 2005: Journalists and intellectuals in rural Pakistan are calling on their government to issue more licenses for small, community radio stations. Participants at a recent gathering in the Bahawalpur district agreed that more grassroots media would help hold local officials more accountable.

Rural Media Network Pakistan organized the June 28 seminar on freedom of expression. The discussion covered a variety of issues, including licenses for independent radio stations, freedom of information laws, and recent government attempts to punish newspapers by withholding advertising. Ehsan Ahmed Sehar, convenor of the network, noted a political power shift from the capital to rural areas. The participants urged the Pakistan Media Regulatory Authority (PEMRA) to help ensure more checks and balances by issuing more community radio licenses. In recent years PEMRA itself has urged faster allocation of frequencies for independent broadcasters. But the agency has said that security agencies must give up a bigger share of the limited spectrum. Journalists from four regional press clubs and the National Press Union attended the seminar. They expressed a need for more training facilities for rural journalists, who they said are the backbone of the newspaper industry.
Credibility of Radio
Maintaining credibility of a broadcasting organisation means broadcasting a news service or any other programme which is acceptable and worthy of belief to the people. Accuracy, balance, clarity and deadline having achieved together can produce a credible medium. Any broadcasting organisation which is not striving to earn credibility and listeners don’t believe it, is simply wasting time and money.
Writing news for broadcasting is much the same as writing for a news paper or wire service. The idea is to present the information in logical sequence and in understandable language. There are no tricks to writing news for broadcast. Most elements that contribute to a good news story for print are also present in a good radio story. There are however a few basic principles that radio writers adhere to because of the peculiarities of the medium.
While it is true that radio news scripts are shorter than most news stories written for print, the radio news writer is still obliged to tell a complete sotry. Facts
needed to put the story into perspective and provide balance must be included. Although radio news stories rarely run more than fifteen lines, they must be written in such a way that nothing of significance is omitted. This requirement places a premium on the writers judgement, and, in the long run, judgement – the ability to separate the important from the un – important is the quality that separates good journalist from a poor journalist.
In our part of the world radio is the most important means of mass communication. For many people radio is the only source of news. Compared with the television and newspapers radio has many advantages. It is fast and can be operated without electricity too. Radio programme production costs lesser and illiteracy is not a barrier while communicating over it. Radio carries weaknesses too. It is heard only once, no back reference is possible. It is subject to atmospheric and other interferences. It can’t.compete with newspaper in the amount of material to be conveyed.
The introduction of T.V. has affected to radio listening. In addition to being visual the glamour of colour had helped T.V. to attract a large number of audience as compared to radio., Traditionally radio broadcasting is aimed at information, education and entertainment. The entertainment part was mainly based on music and drama. The music had drifted towards the ever flourishing cassette industry while drama has moved to television. It is the news where radio still reigns supreme.
Any broadcasting orgainsation which is news and current affairs oriented can easily attract the public attention*. But in our part of the world the situation continues to remain otherwise. It is seriously felt that some radical changes are essential to improve the pattern of the news presentation and their contents and timings.

As a colonial legacy radio in the developing countries countinues to be controlled by the official quarters. People who had nothing to do with broadcasting at times become the big boss or the chief policy maker. Their way of administration have been the cause of continued deterioration in the standard of broadcasting and loss of credibility of the medium.

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Radio News: Definition, Scope and Characteristics

Radio News: Definition, Scope and Characteristics.
There are just as many definitions .of news as there are books and scholars on journalism. Same is the case with the definition of radio news. However all of them emphasize different aspects of the subject. There is something to learn from each one of them. Starting from the common phrase ‘when a dog bites a man it is not a news; when a man bites a dog, it is a news’ we can go through dictionaries and encyclopedias to know as many definitions. In the present day world news can also be an account of an idea or a precise description of a problem. News is current information. But news can also be made out of the indications of what may happen in the near future.
No matter how one interprets the definition of news, a good reliable prediction or a speculation must surely be based on ‘current information’ , that is news.
With the passage of time the evolution of the definition has been changing. It has different meaning for different persons and also on different media. Something a news for a newspaper may not be as important or of no significance for radio or television.
One of the most suitable definitions of news according to broadcasting point of view is “a new piece of information about a significant and recent event that effects the listeners and is of interest to them”.
A radio news story is written for the ear, it is not meant for reading. A radio story is also not for any particular segment of the society.lt is neither targeted for any special ethnic group nor is limited to any geographical boundary. Its drafting is therefore more ticklish than the print or visual media.
The most important stylistic principle in radio news writing is simplicity. If the language is too complex, it is possible that the story will not be completely understood by the audience. The radio listener can not retrieve lost information by reading a sentence or story. If the story is not understood the first time around, it would be lost to the listener for ever. Radio news writers generally apply a few rules of their own to help them get information across in the best (simplest form): keep the sentence short, avoid complex sentences or construction and use basic words not colloquialisms.
News gathering is a specialized job which needs lot of skill. It reaches the news room mostly in four ways, through staff reporters, monitoring of foreign broadcasts, through news agencies or press releases, hand outs etc. News falls into the news room from all the sources and at all the time and used then and there because there are plenty of news bulletins as against news papers which are printed once each day. The staff reporter is not only
responsible to collect his own stories but also generally asked to confirm doubtful stories filed by news agencies or caHed to elaborate the message contained in press releases or handouts.
The information wings of the Federal and provincial governments work as pubic relations departments of the government and their ministers. Every day these agencies issue a bunch of hand outs containing official news. This include reports of cabinet meetings, statements of the government functionaries, stories of development work and so on In special cases and unusual situation press notes are issued to explain official position or point of view. The editor uses his own discretion and professional skill in using them on the basis of actual news value. These materials are not office orders but only information messages from official quarters and should be treated as such purely on merit. The press notes are to be taken more seriously and cautiously because they are issued in special cases and generally contain serious information. These too should also be properly edited and summarized according to the available space.
The news agencies, both national and international, are another important source of information. Perhaps the British news agency ‘Reuters’ is the oldest. Other major international news agencies are the French news agency, AFP; the American agency, AP; the Chinese agency, XINHUA; the Russian, ITAR-TASS; and the German news agency, DPA. Most of the countries have there own national news agencies. For instance Associated Press of Pakistan (APP) and the Press Trust of India (PTI). The major news agencies have their own separate agreements for the exchange of news with Other international agencies thus filling the gap where they ace not present.
In addition to APP there are many other news agencies in the private sector. Among them. the most’ significant is the Pakistan Press International PPI. Other significant in the field are NNI, (the Network News International) PPA, (the Pakistan Press International agency) and KPJ (Kashmir Press International!).
Art and Scope of Reporting for Radio:
Reporting is the art of news collection and filing dispatches to the news room for suitable consumption in the bulletins. In radio a reporter has got to be extra quick and accurate. The reporter has to keep his ears to the ground for possible rumblings. There are many areas which sometimes, without much of a warning, may produce headline news. Lot of skill and craftsmanship is needed to cover political events while the economic front is quite less hazardous. In addition to political, economic, sports and development news the door of investigative reporting is also *there which how ever is not very common phenomenon in developing countries. A new spirit of enquiry and criticism has to be developed to break some ground in the field of investigative reporting.
The reporting for radio is somewhat different from that of newspapers and television. In Radio, it is always a race against time and demands, special skill and high sense of responsibility. Normal reporting assignments are easy to handle but specialized one require special knowledge, skill and training. For instance a parliamentary reporter can’t justify his job unless he knows the rules of business and procedural matters of the House. Similarly sports coverage is not justified without basic know-how of the game which is to be reported.
Perhaps far less hazardous are stories of economic front. Here too. there are areas of reporting which are far more important in Asia than in industrialized , societies in the West. In many countries shortage of consumer goods and food grains. lead to hoarding, black marketing and other malpractices. As an area of reporting, no less important is smuggling of essential commodities.
Even on his own a young reporter can discover almost any number of areas of reporting. But what is important is to see their relevance to the socio economic conditions-underlying the pattern. The reporter is supposed to know his audience He is also supposed to anticipate and work under pressure and speed.
The art of reporting is the ability to simplify comlex matters and make them meaningful to the listeners. A good reporter is inquisitive, cultivative his own source gets all facts asking a lot of questions and always watches for the angle. Rumours, speculations and opinion are outside the domain of a responsible reporter.
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Public Opinion – The Role of Radio

Public Opinion – The Role of Radio
Introduction.
There is a growing fear of the stranger, broad generalizations, and negative associations, humiliating and dehumanizing labels attached to refugees, asylum seekers, migrants and immigrants, more and more intolerance, xenophobia and racism are being fostered in host countries towards these groups.
To make sure that extremism, discrimination and racism do not gain upper hand of the majority of the populations, a culture of tolerance and peaceful living conditions a massive public education program should be developed and incorporated in our schools, organizations and systems to cultivate acceptance and better understanding of the reasons for the presence of refugees, asylum seekers and migrants and creatively use their skills which they bring together to the host countries. In this perspective formal and informal education on the rights and plights of the refugees and asylum seekers and migrants should be integrated. Educational institutions, schools and universities through their curricula, should integrate programs of refugee and migrant laborers’ rights and fight back racism and xenophobia. Through informal education, the mass Radio, the newspapers and the electronic communication systems masses & communities should be communicated a culture of tolerance and peaceful living with the stranger.
The Role of The Radio
Radio is the most powerful tool for the formation of Public opinion in contemporary times. It is the Television, the press, the radio and the Internet. (Films, magazines, posters, studies, reports, theater, art, dance, public speeches, hearings)Talking about the Radio is like talking about a mission. A source of information and education that will shape the daily choices in people’s life. That will shape the thinking, and the perception of things. But Radio is a political power and tool, occupied in a way by the big powers, international corporations, big agencies using for their political and economic objectives that control and can pay. Among the most powerful news agencies in the West are the BBC, CNN, Euro-news, Monte Carlo, while, Al Jazira, Al Aarabia, LBC, Al Shark El Awsat are the news agencies in the Middle East. The religious and political leaders of these Radio agencies are always around to talk, freely and passing news, stands, and positions to their communities, to the public using them to serve their political and economic ends.
By the development, advance and spread of technology the world has shrunk into a global village whereby the remote villages of China, the Pacific island of Hawaii and the deserts of Arabia are on our everyday screens at home at our dinner tables, telling their stories and worries. Unfortunately, family, church and community issues at national or international levels are no more concerns for
the educational or moral shaping of the generations to come, it is the war in Iraq, the killings in
Sudan, the terrorist attacks in Israel and Palestine, the Talibans in Afghanistan, the Nuclear
weapons in Iran, the HIV- Aids and poverty in Africa, the boat refugees at the borders of Europe,
Australia or USA. The bloodier, the more violent and scandalous, the more apocalyptic, the more captive and more popular the station is. The beautiful cultural, historical and musical programs are no more interesting, who watches them anyhow? Why aren’t they popular, it is either war or sex on the screens and in the papers, both have economic end purposes: to sell weapons to warring
countries or to sell human beings in the sex industry, the most rentable of all the businesses.
It is important that the Radio redefines its goals and mission, for the rule of the jungle, “la raison du plus fort” is the world order today. The role and the mission of the Radio is to commit itself to values that are imperative for today, and it is possible to achieve this goal only if civil societies commit themselves into risks and understand the need for it and encourage agencies that can play this role. Both poles of the world have misleading information and negative perceptions and misconceptions of each other. The North does not know enough the South and vice versa, the South has negative perception of the North and rejects every ideology that comes from it. Both need to understand clearly that there are ways to understand & interpret Islam or Democracy, different spirit of understanding religion, a spirit of peace and mercy, and Democracy, a spirit of human rights, and respect for human beings. The South instigated with fundamentalism is burning in war, while, the North generalizing all middle Easterners as terrorists and Africans as unskilled and poor people is closing its doors in fear of an influx of refugees and terrorist attacks.But is that the real causes of things?
What underlies behind is beyond fundamentalism or terrorist attacks, it is an ideological & political war of the North and the South and not the migration crisis, the numbers indicate the lower rate of entry of refugees or asylum seekers in northern countries for the last years. It is the war of the big corporations running their businesses at the tune of fundamentalism, ethnic killings and racism, sharpening antagonism and racism. The way refugees are presented to the public is very crucial for harmonious & peaceful coexistence of the emerging societies, because migration is also a phenomenon of globalization. Fear, exclusion, and isolation of the stranger is the tactics of the politicians.
The Radio’s presentation of refugees, asylum seekers and migrants significantly shapes public
opinion about these groups. Less than 20% perhaps, of the populations have personal face to face experience with refugees, asylum seekers and migrants, Yet most have no or biased opinion of these people. The Radio has a massive responsibility in providing factual coverage that does not perpetuate myths, stereotypes or encourage generalizations or spread misinformation about refugees, asylum seekers and migrants. Unfortunately, accurate, truthful and factual coverage on refugees, asylum seekers and migrants is not the norm, the tendency is to lump together all foreigners into one big category either as traffickers, terrorist, or drug dealers and pour oil on xenophobia and racism and rationalize the policy of closing borders. The topic of refugees is a hot political issue serving
political, electoral and economic purposes of leaders.
Refugee Advocates And Radio Relations.
For social transformation to take place, Civil Societies, NGOs and international organizations are expected and responsible in bringing to the surface the reality about these groups and dissipate confusions and encourage Radio agencies to contribute to combat racism and enhance world peace as an urgent need. To achieve this it is important for civil society activists, lobbyists and advocates to establish relations and promote cooperation with mass Radio actors: publishers, editors, editorial writers, reporters to enhance the goal of true information about the real situation in the Southern countries, the true causes for migration, about persecutions, killings and poverty, to generate public awareness on refugee issues and provide information and facts accurately. This is the power and raison d’etre of the Radio. The relations established with Radio actors will create a fair balanced coverage when the refugees are in hot water, the Radio could build support around the issue, influence the public opinion and make them prime targets.
Radio relations are important:
For convincing legislators that their actions are being watched, not only by people in the gallery, but also by countless others reading newspapers, listening to radio and watching
TV. and
For lobbying campaigns to build grassroots support and transform the issue from a nonpublic to a public issue.
Therefore to create public opinion on refugees, asylum seekers and detention it is necessary:
To develop personal contacts with Radio officials, be acquainted with their programs and provide material and motivate cooperation with them.
Use press conferences to introduce the issue, or settle disputes or bring the issue to the light using photographs, kits and information.
Use Radio previews, press releases at public programs, celebrations events facilitate the introduction of the event or transmit the message
Use audio-visuals: radio interviews, TV talk shows, debates, community calendars, clip sheets and distribute at special events with photos and stories.
For refugee advocates, to create public opinion and to achieve effective Radio relations it is important that:
The methods and technology involved are respected: gathering news, collecting data, evaluating it, processing editorially, printing in the best format and providing it to the Radio people.
Choosing spokespersons who are frank, honest and responding to enquiries and
persuasive in their calls.
Conclusion
Gone are the beautiful old days whereby the neighborhood and communities lived in harmony and trust, children grew with love of the other and in security with neighborhood ethics and values, where the stranger was welcomed and given a place and chance to restart his life. Today’s neighborhood is one of complex human association of mistrust & insecurity, exclusion, isolation and fear of the other, loneliness in a multitude of people.
Global village should be inherent of other values as well, it should not incur economic or political hegemony, as the world is not a market-controlled environment for international corporations.
For the emergence of new world society and for the securitization of migration issues it is
necessary to grow and spread the understanding of a global citizen, global society with global ethics of human rights values, with principles of democracy that are consistent in words and in practice.
The analysis of such a society would provide information to grasp the geo-politic and socioeconomic breakdown of the situation in the North and the South and a better understanding of the migration crisis and therefore better develop dialogue between North and South for dissipation of myths, enhancement of democracy and cooperation of the poles.
“The world community should recognize the failure of neo-liberal system and take cognizance of destructive impact of economic reform. While has the moral obligation of the North to share the global asylum burden rests on its enormous resource capabilities relative to those of the South.And transnational dynamics of social, political and economic conflict in the contemporary world
makes the North responsible for the upheavals in the South” says Stephen Castles.
The role of the Radio thus is the pursuit of truth, to constantly transmit the reality and uncover the ‘beneath’ and the ‘underlying’ facts of things, develop a just society that will abide by the rule of law and govern by the ethics of human rights, develop & encourage the idea of world citizenship.
Changing the mentality of the people to be more permissive, understanding and educative is of course a very difficult task for human rights workers and civil society members, however it is for these groups to bring to the surface societal evils that hinder the development and the growth of our society in a peaceful environment, making modifications and changes within our systems.
It is for the Radio to remind constantly to the ruling powers their role of governing the world justly and fairly, as they have the privilege & the opportunity to make history by creating world order and a global society with universal human rights values and the rule of democracy.
The role of radio in development

Originally known as radiotelegraphy or wireless telegraphy, radio is one of the oldest mass communication devices that we still use. In fact the use of radio in recent years has increased dramatically with more private channels competiting with each other to broadcast better entertainment music, news and information that would keep their listeners on their toes and updated. Astonishingly, radio is the only mass communication medium which has received more popularity after the advent of internet. With the new trend of radio stations streaming live on the internet.
Radio has played a major role in the development of Europe. Since the establishment of the radio station in early 1897, Europe radio has become widely popular all over. In many parts of Europe radio started becoming the sole mode of entertainment and news information. In Europe radio was also used for sending messages between ships and land. The use of radio slowly began to spread for the use of passing orders between the armies and navies of European countries and gradually it was commercialized.
With more development in the field of wireless networks in Europe radio was used to broadcast political speeches, nation-wide news and other useful information. Soon radio became an indispensable item in every European household.
In modern Europe radio still remains one of the most popular medium of mass entertainment and communication. Today you will come across many web sites where you will find radio stations streaming live on the internet. In many countries across Europe radio related web sites are coming up tremendously as more people tune in to listen to their favorite songs and news information even when they are on the move. Many new services related to radio are also becoming popular like satellite radio and digital radio service which is relatively new concept.

Role of Radio in Mass Communication
Outside the realm of interpersonal communication exists another form of communication which involves communication with mass audiences and hence the nomenclature “mass communication.” The channels through which this kind of communication takes place are referred to as mass media. Mass communication and mass media, are generally considered synonymous. Mass communication is unique and different from interpersonal communication
as is evident from the following definition: Any mechanical device that multiplies
messages and takes them to a large number of people simultaneously is called mass communication. The media through which messages are being transmitted include: radio, TV, newspapers, magazines, films, records, tape recorders, video cassette recorders, etc., and require large organizations and electronic devices to put across the messages.
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RADIO BROADCASTING SYSTEM PAKISTAN

RADIO BROADCASTING SYSTEM
Broadcasting: Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video signals which transmit programs to an audience. The audience may be the general public or a relatively large sub-audience, such as children or young adults.
RADIO BROADCASTING: Broadcasting system is a chain of technically / electronically coupled elements which is used to pick up an ordinary sound wave, convert it to an electrical wave (of some frequency say from 50Hz to 10 Khz) without any change in its parameters. This sound wave is fed to a radio transmitter where its frequency is again raised by combining it to third wave of a higher frequency called the radio frequency. This is the frequency which is allotted to a particular station (in Pakistan a Frequency Allocation Board (FAB) allotted a frequency). This is called the carrier frequency while the wave of the second frequency is called the audio wave. The audio and carrier waves are combined electronically through a process called Modulation. This important process takes place in a radio transmitter. Further this modulated wave is fed to an antenna which radiates this wave in the form of an electro magnetic energy. Following diagram shows how to broadcast
Contents
Produce
Modulation
Amplification
Emission
Receiver
CONTENTS: Contents means the script or things which are transmitted. Contents are the main theme of the radio, without content radio is empty. A host or DJ plays his role to convey the contents and play the songs, etc.
PRODUCE: Produce is the process of producing the voice, sounds etc from the audio mixer which mostly handled by the DJ or host himself. The mixer mix the voice and the sound from the device and send it to the Modulation process
MODULATION: It is the process where audio and carrier waves are combined electronically.
AMPLIFICATION: An amplifier is any device that changes, usually increases, the amplitude of a signal. The relationship of the input to the output of an amplifier, usually expressed as a function of the input frequency, is called the transfer function of the amplifier, and the magnitude of the transfer function is termed the gain.
EMISSION: It is the radiation or radio signal produced or emitted by a radio transmitting station.
REVEIVER: It is a device which gives the output of the whole process. In other words it is a receiver which receives the signals and deliver the output to the listeners. This is called radio receiver.
MODULATION
It is the process of varying one waveform in relation to another waveform. In telecommunications, modulation is used to convey a message. The three key parameters of a sine wave are its amplitude (“volume”), its phase (“timing”) and its frequency (“pitch”), all of which can be modified in accordance with a low frequency information signal to obtain the modulated signal.
There are three basic modes of modulation:-
Amplitude modulation (AM)
Frequency modulation (FM)
Phase modulation (PM)
AMPLITUDE MODULATION (AM): Amplitude Modulation (AM) is a technique used in electronic communication, most commonly for transmitting information via a radio carrier wave. It works by varying the strength of the transmitted signal in relation to the information being sent. If the amplitudes of the two waves become equal to each other, the modulation is called 100%. By using the method of modulation generally called AM we can transmit our programmers in two ways:-
(i) Medium Wave transmissions which range from 645KHz to 1605KHz. This is called AM broadcast band
(ii) Short Wave transmissions which range from 3 MHz to 30 MHz.
The frequencies of the Medium Waves are low, and hence their range of services is also small. However, this range of services depends upon the power of the transmitter. The greater the power, the greater the service area, such transmitters are normally meant for Home/National or Regional services.
The frequencies of Short Waves are high and unlike medium waves, as soon as these waves leave the transmitting antenna take dominantly the form of sky waves and this can cover distant target areas and such radio transmitters assume the form of international stations.

FREQUENCY MODULATION (FM):
In system where the signal alters systematically the frequency rather than the amplitude of the carrier wave, signal transmission can be effected with a substantial lowering in the relative level of all types of interference. FM is commonly used at VHF radio frequencies for high-fidelity broadcasts of music and speech. A narrow band form is used for voice communications in commercial and amateur radio settings. The type of FM used in broadcast is generally called wide-FM, or W-FM. In two-way radio, narrowband narrow-fm (N-FM) is used to conserve bandwidth. In addition, it is used to send signals into space.

PHASE MODULATION (PM):
Phase modulation (PM) is a form of modulation that represents information as variations in the instantaneous phase of a carrier wave.
Unlike its more popular counterpart, frequency modulation (FM), PM is not very widely used. This is because it tends to require more complex receiving hardware and there can be ambiguity problems in determining whether, for example, the signal has changed phase by +180° or -180°

COPYRIGHT ACT
Copyright gives the author of an original work exclusive right for a certain time period in relation to that work, including its publication, distribution and adaptation, after which time the work is said to enter the public domain. Copyright applies to any expressible form of an idea or information that is substantive and discrete and fixed in a medium. Some jurisdictions also recognize “moral rights” of the creator of a work, such as the right to be credited for the work. Copyright is described under the umbrella term intellectual property along with patents and trademarks.
History:- The concept of copyright originates with the Statute of Anne (1710) in Britain. It established the author of a work as the owner of the right to copy that work and the concept of a fixed term for that copyright. The Statute of Anne was the first real copyright act, and gave the authors rights for a fixed period, a fourteen year term for all works published the Statute, after which the copyright expired.
Copyright Act:- In 1790 US Congress passed an act for the encouragement of learning by securing copies of maps, charts, and books to the authors and proprietors of such copies “To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries”
Copyright Act in Pakistan:- In Pakistan, copyright protection is governed by the provisions of the Copyright Ordinance, 1962 (“the Ordinance”) which is modeled on the English Act of 1914. Pakistan is a member of Berne Copyright Union and the Universal Copyright Convention.
One of the most significant developments in relation to the protection of copyright in Pakistan is the recent promulgation of the Copyright (Amendment) Act, 1992 (“the Amendment Act”). Copyright protection originally available to literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, cinematographic and architectural works, books, photographs, newspapers, engravings, lectures, records (defined as “any disc, tape, wire, perforated roll or other device in which sounds are embodied so as to be capable of being reproduced therefrom, other than a sound track associated with a cinematographic work”) and sculptures is now extended to computer software, periodicals, video films and all kind of audio-visual works.
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ETHICS OF PHOTO JOURNALISM

Readers often perceive certain photographs as morally “good or bad” as shocking^ distasteful, or unnecessary intrusions into private lives. They often criticise photo journalists for shooting tragic or shocking pictures.
The history of photo journalism is filled with examples of photographs of sensational subjects, violent scenes or suffering. The photo journalists who shot these scenes acted instinctively on the obligation to report to public. Other photo journalists, who may have hesitated or backed away because of interference by others, or even owing to their own sensibilities, were simply not doing their job. The fact that photographs can often be shocking is part of the burden of being a photo journalist.
there are sime ethus of photo journalism which govern the conduct of photo jot. Midlists and a/so that of editors who decide finally about the fate of a picture i.e. to le published or discarded. In the Pakistani context, the following ethics of photo journalism are generally observed in newspapers.
I. Intrusion into people’s homes and private life is morally as well as legally not allowed. Photo journalists are no exception. However, if people are breaching the law of the state or are doing immoral activities in their homes and privaf* photo journalist can take their pictures and publish it. Even such photos are regarded as an achievement of the photographer.
2 Journalism gives top priority to ‘public good’. Hence, pictures which cause distress to the readers should be avoided. For instance, photographs of horrific accidents and other shock pictures.
I)             Publication of obscene pictures should be avoided.
I)             Photo journalist should not transgress norms and traditions of the society while performing his duty. He should not print photos which are against the local norms and traditions.
I)             Pictures should not be retouched to misrepresent people or situations.
f>. Picture should not present a villain as a hero.
Libel is a false and defamatory statement or expression in some permanent form which tends to injure the reputation of a person without legal justification. So. a picture should also not tend to injure the reputation of a person without legal justification. However there are certain defences against libel and in such situations the news photographer is allowed to take and publish pictures.
Picture of a news worthy event may be damaging for one’s reputation but if it does not invade the legal boundary and it is in the interest of the society, it can and must be published.
KINDS OF JOURNALISTIC PHOTOS
Following are the most common kinds of journalistic photos:-
News Events Pictures
Pictures of this kind relate to events of hard news stories, such as accidents, murder or any other tragedy etc.
General News Pictures
Pictures of events that have already been scheduled such as press conference, 23rd March event, etc.
Feature Pictures
Feature story accommodates many pictures so as to provide maximum entertainment to the readers. Feature pictures are close to life and nature. The scope of feature pictures is very vast. These include children, women, old people, animals, birds, buildings, mountains and seas, etc.
Sports Pictures
In photo journalism, sports pictures hold a unique position. Sports news without pictures are incomplete. Sports pictures present action and style which usually become the sole constituent of the news.
News worthy personality pictures are usually published in newspapers and magazines. While taking pictures of a news worthy personality, photographer must concentrate on the specific impression of the personality so that the audience can understand him/her immediately.
Sources of pictures are given below:-
Staff photographers are the main source of exclusive pictures and have the advantage that they can be more easily deployed alongside reporters on jobs whereon the spot pictures are wanted.
Press photographers are journalists by training and definition, and their approach and job briefing are in line with that for reporters.
Staff pictures become the newspaper’s copyright, and syndication or reproduction fees are earned if they are used in other publications.
Staff photographers, even when working alongside reporters, are expected to be responsible for their own caption material and facts and name checking.
There are many freelance press photographers working in a variety of fields. Some are heavily specialized into such things as glamour, fashion and industrial photography. They might be employed on particular assignments or might be engaged on day-to-day or week-to-week arrangements. Most freelancers are engaged because of their special experience or reliability in certain types of work* Exclusiveness of work depends on the rights bought Or the type of contract.
Picture agfencies provide a great range of pictures to subscribing newspapers. Some agencies have specialities such as sports, political or celebrity portraitures.
Pictures
PROs or press officers provide pictures to media free because of the publicity value to the owners or subjects.
Picture Library
The office picture files going back in some cases as many as thirty years, are an important source of stock pictures for flashback use 01 for head or mug shots of politicians, sportsmen and other well known people.
2.6 C RITERIA OF GOOD PICTURES
The newsman has to consider two things while publishing a photograph :- (I) Technical value of the picture (2) Edit01i.1l value of the picture.
Good picture depends upon the purpose ioi lure ic.-,’ vu! ,r> for news Following are the criteria which make a picture good for 1 news ^
Technical Considerations

1.
Proper Focus
2.
Effective contrast and lighting.
j.
Suitability for reproduction.
4.
Adequate exposure.
5.
Correct development.
6.
Effective printing.

Composition Consideration

1.
Proper Balance
2.
Eye Movement.
3.
Grouping
4.
Effective Grouping
5.
Focal Point
6.
Formal and Informal Need

Effective Picture Communication
1.    It should create interest in the news.
2.            It should convey the information better than words.
3.            it should be easy to read.
4.            It should please the viewers.
5.            It should be purpose based.
2. PICTURE APPEAL
Following pictures appeal to the viewer:-

1.
Fear.
2.
Animal
3.
Children
4
Sex
5.
Beauty
6.
Sports
7.
Sympathy
8
Personalities
9.
Struggle (both physical and mental).

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ROLE AND SCOPE OF PHOTO JOURNALISM

For the combination of pictures with written information has been coined a new term “Photo journalism”. Today newspapers are as dependent on photographs as they are on news stories, features, columns, interviews and editorials, etc. Photograph not only supplement text, but also enhance and extend it by highlighting and pressing upon the readers important points and make it easier for the reader to build up a picture of what he or she is reading about. Another important function of pictures in newspaper is to attract readers attention towards a particular information for achieving a special effect.
During the 1920 when pictures became part and parcel of newspapers and magazines, experiments were carried out on transmission of photographic image by wire According to Warran’ Phillip and Edwin (1985), the first photos sent by wire were transmitted from the Associated Press which had established its wire photo network on January 1, 1935 Distribution of wire photos enabled the newspapers to publish pictures from other cities only a few hours after they were taken.
The invention of television has considerably affected the print media because television has obvious advantages in many respects over newspapers and magazines. But arrival of colour pictures in print media has somewhat balanced the superiority of television. The enhanced interest in photographic communication has opened new avenues for making business in newspapers and magazines. Photographers now contribute pictures in the development of photographic essays and interpretative picture stories. Friday magazines of newspapers are feature oriented rather than news oriented which publish mostly colour photographs for articles, fashion essays etc. This trend has attracted freelance photographers to do business.
From the communication point of view every picture is not worth a thousand words. Rather those principles matter that qualify a picture for publication in the press. According to Warran, Phillip and Edwin “photograph is capable of high fidelity reproduction of very fine detail and texture. A skilfully made photograph can communicate the essence of factual experience. It can be controlled to represent a subject in various perspectives determined by photographer as he or she selects a particular lens and the camera-subject relationship for the picture. Black and white photographers have almost unlimited control on representing the original subject in shades of gray and extreme black and white. Thus the photographer’s technical’ skin and mental attitude influence the picture that is taken”
Grouping and position of people and main object in the picture form a pleasing shape. It is to be the most eye-catching picture but it is of no use if such picture is
not balance with news stories. There must be sufficient contrast in tone between dark and light for a picture to reproduce properly. Lack of tonal values can produce a gray effect on printing.
 Characteristics of Photo Journalism
Pictures in newspapers have not only added to the get up of a newspaper but they have also increased the readership. The combination of picture with words has enabled the journalists to present all facts in a clearer and effective way.
Following are the characteristics of photo journalism.
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Accuracy and impact                      
Picture can explain a situation or event accurately with greater impact whereas words lack this characteristic. For example, a news story of bomb blast in Egyption Embassy killing 20 people, might not create that much impact as it can if the same story is explained with pictures of the incident.
Immediate Understanding
Readers can understand maximum details of an event through a picture in a minimum time as compared to a wordy news story.
Clarity and Completeness
An image with added words becomes a package that assures clear communication.
Makes newspaper more interesting
Although headlines, layout and make-up techniques in newspapers are used for eye-catching but when these are added with pictures, they make the newspaper more interesting for the readers.
Pictures are Entertaining
Newspapers publish pictures on a variety of subjects for the gratification of all segments of society. So publication of pictures on weather change, unusual events, women, fashion, etc. becomes a source of entertainment for the readers.
Following are the most common kinds of journalistic photos:-
News Events Pictures
Pictures of this kind relate to events of hard news stories, such as accidents, murder or any other tragedy etc.
Pictures of events that have already been scheduled such as press conference, 23rd March event, etc.
Feature Pictures
Feature story accommodates many pictures so as to provide maximum entertainment to the readers. Feature pictures are close to life and nature. The scope of feature pictures is very vast. These include children, women, old people, animals, birds, buildings, mountains and seas, etc.
Sports Pictures
In photo journalism, sports pictures hold a unique position. Sports news without pictures are incomplete. Sports pictures present action and style which usually become the sole constituent of the news.
Personality Pictures
News worthy personality pictures are usually published in newspapers and magazines. While taking pictures of a news worthy personality, photographer must concentrate on the specific impression of the personality so that the audience can understand him/her immediately.
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