Effects of Information Technologies

With the existing new technologies and innovations emerging every other day, the information technology is an increasingly interesting platform not just for developers, but also for all sorts of non-technical common people.

With the need for making things easier in the daily life and with the technological advancements, more and more daily activities are shifting online. Having said this, the web can be a very useful tool as well as an intimidating proposition at the same time.

Computer based technology and information systems are actually quite large and vast spread in their utility, have broader spectrum and details. For instance when anyone uses the web for browsing, sending or receiving e-mails, playing online games or even sharing multimedia files with others, all the data has to pass through a set of complicated networks and soft-wares. There are many processes involved that are responsible for management of such systems.

The prime concern of computer related technology is to provide effective and efficient environment, utility of information, software’s and even knowledge and solutions to the common man in a user-friendly manner.

Even the vast majority of people who are still unfamiliar with the technology of computers and the internet, surely find it handy in providing a great means of communication to the whole wide world.

Internet plays a role of a large knowledge base and a crucial place for the latest news, trends and information. Internet even is a big boon to the business or research persons.

Computer related technologies have a strong impact on the world. These have attracted many students and professionals to the field of information technology. There are thousands of web sites and web hosting opportunities available which are ever growing.

There was some problem in the information superhighway of computer technology in the early 90’s because it was not envisioned at that time that the general public would be turning to it in such large numbers. It was supposed to be a walkway reserved for bespectacled physicists and university professionals. With the introduction of the World Wide Web which we know today as ‘www’ was once considered as a medium for sharing text files has gone a major facelift in a period of a decade or so. With the web browsers designed to quickly find and organize information, the internet seeped deeper into popular culture and has become an integral part of daily life and even office work.

The unique fusion of the user interface, animations, video and radio streaming are the ever developing capabilities and advancements of the browsers that have the developers intrigued and working tirelessly.

There are many researches already claiming that the effect of the computer technology, more specifically the online footprint on an internet user’s life is at an average more than that is due to watching TV. What television is renowned for is its multimedia content. The internet with its rich applications and focused capacity of gaining more popular viewer ship is moving in the right direction

Continue Reading

Cable Television

Cable television is a system of providing television programs to consumers via radio frequency (RF) signals transmitted to televisions through coaxial cables or digital light pulses through fixed optical fibers located on the subscriber’s property, much like the over-the-air method used in traditional broadcast television (via radio waves) in which a television antenna is required. FM radio programming, high-speed Internet, telephony, and similar non-television services may also be provided. The major difference is the change of radio frequency signals used and optical connections to the subscriber property.

Most television sets are cable-ready and have a cable television tuner capable of receiving cable TV already built-in that is delivered as an analog signal. To obtain premium television most televisions require a set top box called a cable converter that processes digital signals. The majority of basic cable channels can be received without a converter or digital television adapter that the cable companies usually charge for, by connecting the copper wire with the F connector to the Ant In that is located on the back of the television set.

The abbreviation CATV is often used to mean “Cable TV”. It originally stood for Community Antenna Television, from cable television’s origins in 1948: in areas where Over-the-air reception was limited by distance from transmitters or mountainous terrain, large “community antennas” were constructed, and cable was run from them to individual homes. The origins of cable broadcasting are even older as radio programming was distributed by cable in some European cities as far back as 1924.

It is most commonplace in North America, Europe, Australia and East Asia, though it is present in many other countries, mainly in South America and the Middle East. Cable TV has had little success in Africa, as it is not cost-effective to lay cables in sparsely populated areas. So-called “wireless cable” or microwave-based systems are used instead

Broadband Internet is achieved over coaxial cable by using cable modems to convert the network data into a type of digital signal that can be transferred over coaxial cable. One problem with some cable systems is the older amplifiers placed along the cable routes are unidirectional thus in order to allow for uploading of data the customer would need to use an analog telephone modem to provide for the upstream connection. This limited the upstream speed to 31.2k and prevented the always-on convenience broadband internet typically provides. Many large cable systems have upgraded or are upgrading their equipment to allow for bi-directional signals, thus allowing for greater upload speed and always-on convenience, though these upgrades are expensive


Continue Reading

Communication satellite

Communications satellite is an artificial satellite stationed in space for the purpose of telecommunications. Modern communications satellites use a variety of orbits including geostationary orbits, Molniya orbits, other elliptical orbits and low (polar and non-polar) Earth orbits.

For fixed (point-to-point) services, communications satellites provide a microwave radio relay technology complementary to that of communication cables. They are also used for mobile applications such as communications to ships, vehicles, planes and hand-held terminals, and for TV and radio broadcasting, for which application of other technologies, such as cable television, is impractical or impossible

A satellite in a geostationary orbit appears to be in a fixed position to an earth-based observer. A geostationary satellite revolves around the earth at the same angular velocity of the earth itself, 360 degrees every 24 hours in an equatorial orbit, and therefore it seems to be in a fixed position over the equator. The launch of Anik A-1 in 1972, made Canada the first country in the world to establish its own domestic geostationary communication satellite network.

Low Earth Orbit (LEO) typically is a circular orbit about 400 kilometers above the earth’s surface and, correspondingly, a period (time to revolve around the earth) of about 90 minutes. Because of their low altitude, these satellites are only visible from within a radius of roughly 1000 kilometers from the sub-satellite point. In addition, satellites in low earth orbit change their position relative to the ground position quickly. So even for local applications, a large number of satellites are needed if the mission requires uninterrupted connectivity.

Structure of a Communications Satellite

Communications Satellites are usually composed of the following subsystems:

  • Communication Payload, normally composed of transponders, antenna, and switching systems
  • Engines used to bring the satellite to its desired orbit
  • Station Keeping Tracking and stabilization subsystem used to keep the satellite in the right orbit, with its antennas pointed in the right direction, and its power system pointed towards the sun
  • Power subsystem, used to power the Satellite systems, normally composed of solar cells, and batteries that maintain power during solar eclipse
  • Command and Control subsystem, which maintains communications with ground control stations. The ground control earth stations monitor the satellite performance and control its functionality during various phases of its life-cycle
Continue Reading

Various Forms of Feedback in Mass Communication

Feed back

In its simplest form the feedback principle means that a behavior is tested with reference to its result and success or failure of this result influences the future behavior

Though not exactly cut-out for human communication, the Shannon-Weaver model provides clear guidelines for researchers to mark more avenues for graphic presentation of the elements in daily human communication.

Forms of feed back

There are five main categories of feedback. They are listed in the order in which they occur most frequently in daily conversations.

1. Evaluation

Making a judgment about the worth, goodness, or appropriateness of the sender’s statement.

2. Interpretation

Paraphrasing – attempting to explain what the sender’s statement means.

3. Support

 Attempting to assist or support the sender.

4. Probing

Attempting to gain additional information, continue the discussion, or clarify a point.

5. Understanding

 Attempting to discover completely what the sender means by his/her statement.

Role feed back plays in effective communication?

Feedback is a vital part of communication. In the class room students’ facial expression tell the teacher to go to what extent to make students understand the point under discussion. More or less, these expression would guide the teacher where and when to finish.

When we are talking to someone over the phone, if they don’t give us the occasional ‘mmmm’, ‘aaah’, ‘yes, I see’ and so on, it can be very disconcerting. In face-to-face communication, we get feedback in the visual channel as well – head nods, smiles, frowns, changes in posture and orientation, gaze and so on.

Why do people often have difficulty when using computers, when they find it perfectly easy to drive a car? You’d think it should be easier to operate a computer – after all there are only a few keys and a mouse, as against levers, pedals and a steering wheel. A computer’s not likely to kill you, either. It could be due to the lack of feedback in a car, you’ve the sound of the engine, the speed of the landscape rushing past, the force of gravity. Feedback is coming at you through sight, hearing and touch -overdo it and it might come through smell as well. With a computer, there’s very little of that. In fact you apply more of your brain as what you must be doing next rather than shaping your activity whether it’s being liked or not by the machine.


Sending and receiving of message is a simultaneous process in which the receiver continuously sends back its approval or disapproval after having interpreted the message. This helps the sender to modify or discipline its message. This element in the communication process is referred as feedback. For instance a person is delivering speech, the voices, gestures and facial expressions – all part of feedback, would help the speaker to check its loudness, smiles, rhetoric, contents or time to speak. If there is no feedback, the original message may never shape accordingly which may distort the whole communication exercise.

Included Feedback

Communication is reciprocal, two-way, even though the feedback may be delayed.

  • Ø Some of these methods of communication are very direct, as when you talk in direct response to someone.
  • Ø Others are only moderately direct; you might squirm when a speaker drones on and on, wrinkle your nose and scratch your head when a message is too abstract, or shift your body position when you think it’s your turn to talk.
  • Still other kinds of feedback are completely indirect.

By “feedback” the speaker receives information about how his or her message has been received by the listeners and, in turn, responds to those cues. The feedback process is not complete until the speaker has responded to the listener. This process includes the listener’s reactions to the speaker’s response and so

By two-way communication or feedback

This feedback will tell the sender that the receiver understood the message, its level of importance, and what must be done with it. So the feedback loop is the final link in the communication process. Feedback is the check on how successful we have been, in transferring our messages as originally intended. It determines whether understanding has been achieved or not.

The purpose of feedback is to change and alter messages so the intention of the original communicator is understood by the second communicator. It includes verbal and nonverbal responses to another person’s message. forth.



Continue Reading