Important steps to follow for content writing

Important steps to follow for content writing

Interesting and memorable content is the most important need of online businesses. Website and blog writers keep on exploring the most fabulous ways to generate appealing content. Content has gained the main attention of all online businesses. The businesses stepping on the stairs of success is due to the generation and uploading of quality content. Content writing demands the right use of tactics and strategies for gaining the attention of more and more people.

Most Significant Steps to Follow for Generating Valuable Content
The valuable content is no more away from you if you follow all the mandatory steps while creating the content. Writers need to work on their way of writing and must incorporate certain elements in their write-up to gain success. The most important steps to follow for writing quality content are:

Analyze the Competition
The main step that is often taken for granted by content writers is the analysis of the market. It is massively important for all the writers to have a strong analysis of the market. Go through the top sites, make a list of these, and keep on updating yourself about the content they upload! The content writer having the habit of reading others’ content can easily and smoothly express the feelings and concerns of the writer in the article. Keep on reading the content of others to gain the relevant information to incorporate into your content!

Make Extensive Keyword Search
Keywords hunt is quite important and should be taken seriously! Screen the keywords and choose the one with the least difficulty and high volume! The better the keyword hunt would be, the more splendid the content would be generated. Instead of selecting a single keyword, it is better to choose multiple targeting keywords. The flow of writing must be in the direction that the targeting keywords can be adjusted in the content with perfection.

Write the Catchy Title
The creation of the title is the highlighted part of the content writing. The ordinary, dull, and boring titles are no more required at all. The boring titles cannot attract the audience at all and would never generate clickable actions. The strategy to develop the perfect and attractive title includes the combination of words and digits. The use of the primary targeting keyword in the title would make your blog post or website content excel easily in the competitive market.

Make Outline of the Content
The outline of the content must be designed sagaciously. It should cover all the necessary elements of the content and must be displayed at the top of the article. The main purpose of it is to facilitate the readers to determine what the article is carrying for them. It should not be quite long but appropriate enough to retain the interest of the users.

Write in your Own Style
Never adopt the style of other people! Go through multiple writing styles and then jot down the content in your own peculiar manner. Your original style would help you to connect well with the people. Writers can improve their content by writing multiple contents. A beginner must not be shy to initiate writing the content. He must present and express his ideas in his own words. In this way, he learns the writing in a much better way. The experienced writers determine their targeted audience before starting writing and then craft the content as per the audience’s perception.

Focus on the Structure of the Content
The structure of the content should not be symmetrical at all. It should be divided into multiple sections. Split the content into different parts, such as introduction, body, and conclusion.
● Use of Headings and Subheadings
The font size for the headings and sub-headings should vary, and so does the options such as bold, underline, and italic. The more headings you would use, the more easily the audience would navigate their desired section to read.
● Use Bullets and Numbers
The use of numbers and bullets is meant to add convenience for both the writer and reader. It enhances the readability of the content and makes the points of the content quite vivid. However, the unnecessary or excessive use of bullets or numbers must be avoided. Apply the adjusted alignment to the content to grant the presentable and professional appeal to it!

Be Unique – Don’t Copy
Write the content on hot and trendy topics. The uniqueness in the content is a must, and you must use the advanced and high vocabulary words in it to make it unique. Determine the level of uniqueness of your content through a plagiarism test. An online plagiarism checker is the source to immediately and smoothly check for plagiarism.
Keep on polishing your words so that you can deliver quality content! Otherwise, the chances of repetition of the same content would be there. Plagiarism detector is the best way to highlight such issues, while the paraphrasing tool is ideal for fixing these issues.

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News Writing, Editorial Writing, Column Writing and Feature Writing

Write comprehensive notes on the following forms of journalistic writing:

1.News Writing

News is defined as information about an event, idea or opinion that is timely and that affects and interests a large number f people in a community.  News must fulfill the following requirements

–               It should not have been published any where before;

–               It should come to the readers for the first time;

–               A news must relate in one way or the other to the human activity;

–               It should have an element of interest for the readers

–               It should impart some sort of information or education to the readers;

–               It should be concise and accurate

News Characteristics

A.         It is accurate

1.         Factual accuracy means that e4very statement, every name and date, every age and address, every quotation is a verifiable fact

  1. Accuracy means not only correctness of specific detail but also correctness of general impression, the way the details are put together and the emphasis given.
  2. Accuracy is difficult to achieve because of the myriad facts which go into a story, the speed involved in modern journalism, the many people who help to produce the finished story;
  3. A report must exercise ceaseless vigilance to achieve accuracy.  He must check every note and other details.B.           It is balanced.
    1. Balance in a news story is a matter of emphasis and completeness.  It is a reporter’s giving each fact its proper emphasis putting it in proper relation to every other fact, establishing its relative importance to the meaning of a story.
    2. Balance means selecting and arranging facts so as to give a balanced view of a news event.
    3. News is the factual report of an event not the event as a prejudiced person might see or as the reporters or sponsor might wish it to have been.
    4. A reporter should report news impartially and honestly
    5. It is difficult to understand all fact of the story.  When objectivity collides with complexity a good reporter should help the consumer see the objective facts in perspective.
    6. A news story must follow the inverted pyramid form and be written so tersely simply and clearly that the meaning is absolutely plain.
    7. Effective reporting is painstakingly precise in word choice, yet full of life and vigor, colorful, yet without personal tinting affectation or overwriting.
  4. E.           It is recent.
    1. The element of time is of prime consideration to reporters.
    2. Readers want the most recent information on topics in which they are interested.
C.           It is Objective
D.           It is concise and clear


2.         Editorial Writing

Editorial page has occupied an importance place in the newspaper industry.   Editorial reflects the newspaper ideology and is considered the mouthpiece of the newspaper management.  Editorial is an important tool to build public opinion in a positive and constructive way on important national and international issues.  The basic principles of Editorial writing are:


Every editorial is made up of three parts:

  • Introduction
  • Body
  • Conclusion

a.         Introduction

The introduction is the first paragraph. It often begins with a general statement about the topic and ends with a more specific statement of the main idea. The purpose of the introduction is to:

  • let the reader know what the topic is
  • inform the reader about your point of view
  • arouse the reader’s curiosity so that he or she will want to read about your topic

b.         Body

The body of the editorial follows the introduction. It consists of a number of paragraphs in which you develop your ideas in detail:

  • Limit each paragraph to one main idea. (Don’t try to talk about more than one idea per paragraph.)
  • Prove your points continually by using specific examples and quotations.
  • Use transition words to ensure a smooth flow of ideas from paragraph to paragraph.

c.         Conclusion

The conclusion is the last paragraph. Its purpose is to:

  • summarize your main points, leaving out specific examples


Kind of Editorials

Editorial are of four (4) kinds:

I           Civic editorials

II          Policy editorials

III         Big News editorials

IV        Obituary Editorials


A good editorial makes three things clear

–                      The subject or news peg –  the news event or current situation or occasion evoking editorial

–                      The reaction – clear-cut for or against, what the editorial writer wants the reader to think about.

–                      The reasons – facts or logical arguments to back the statement.  This organizational order is not only the most logical but it is the easiest for the beginner to learn.

Classification of Editorials

Editorials can be classified on the basis of functions as follows:

–                      to influence opinion;

–                      to call attention to a wrong/evil to enlighten readers

–                      to praise or to congratulate;

–                      to comment lightly on the news


3.         Column Writing:

Column is the creative expression covering all fields of journalism.  It also contains personal opinion of the writer, which is not welcomed in other form of news story writing.


A column may pass the projected judgements, make recommendations and may write freely without following the accepted boundaries of news writing.


The style as well approach of column writing is neither serious nor compulsive.  A column can be written on any aspect of human interest, it can be humorous, entertaining, sport, talking about people’s life, politics, good governance and may also deal with socio-economic issues such as finance, industry etc.


Qualities of a column, editorial and sometime a feature are intermingled, however, column offer an opportunity for variety in content that no feature or editorial can approach.


A Column should always carry the writer’s by-line and where necessary photographs may also be used.  Columns appear at regular intervals and usually in the same location in the publication in order to facilitate the readers.


Columns may be subject oriented such as those in hobbies or crafts and project the writer’s personal opinion and personality, offering humor, opinion and anecdotes.

Types of Columns:

Columns are considered very useful piece of material, which is flexible enough to fit in at various placed.  Columns can be divided in the following major types and classifications:


A)        Reporting-in-Depth Columns:

In this category background info, perspective and interpretation are given to any happening as a follow-up of any hard news.  The current news events are presented by relating to the past information and projecting future perspective.


b)           “I Think” or Opinionated Columns

Seasoned/experienced columnists usually write this type of columns.  The writer put himself at the driving seat and gives his opinion/observation as a specialist on the topic under discussion.


c)            Gossip Columns

The reader is attracted to this type of columns because it contains a juicy bit of gossip.  Column contain little expect its titillating value which may not be the writer’s exclusive domain.

d)        Humorous Columns

This type of column is considered light weight.  The writer tries to find the humorous aspect in life and write an article that will amuse reader.  These columns also spotlight on an event more clearly than thousands of words of explanation.


e)         Essay Columns

This require a perceptiveness or possible just and cover powering interesting in people that all authors do not possess.


f)             Personality Diary Columns

Diary columns come from public figures and usually written by writers who claim to be close with the concerned personality.  Such columns also may emanate from those who have special place in public like politician, super stars etc.  Most writers occasionally attempt this kind of wring.


g)           How-to-do or Advice Columns

This kind of column is intended to educate the readers through gentle instructions and usually appear on editorial pages.

4.         Feature Writing:

Feature is a non-news article giving background information on certain prominent events or personality in the news.

Features cover all the underlying causes as well as the background of the news story.  It provides guidance as well as entertainment to all the readers including those who are already well aware of the facts and figures of the subject.

The task of writing is usually much easier if you create a set of notes which outline the points you are going to make. Using this approach, you will create a basic structure on which your ideas can be built.

  1. PlansGet used to the idea of shaping and re-shaping your ideas before you start writing, editing and rearranging your arguments as you give them more thought.


  1. Analyze the questionMake sure you understand what the question is asking for. What is it giving you the chance to write about? What is its central issue? Analyze any of its key terms and any instructions. If you are in any doubt, ask your tutor to explain what is required.


  1. Generate ideas

You need to assemble ideas.  Make a note of anything, which might be relevant to your answer. These might be topics, ideas, observations, or instances from your study materials. Put down anything you think of at this stage.


  1. Choosing topics

Extract from your brainstorm listings those topics and points of argument, which are of greatest relevance to the question and its central issue?




  1. Put topics in order

Put these chosen topics in some logical sequence. At this stage you should be formulating a basic response to the question, even if it is provisional and may later be changed. Try to arrange the points so that they form a persuasive and coherent argument.


  1. Arrange your evidence

All the major points in your argument need to be supported by some sort of evidence. Compile a list of brief quotations from other sources which will be offered as your evidence.


  1.  Make necessary changes

Whilst you have been engaged in the first stages of planning, new ideas may have come to mind. Alternate evidence may have occurred to you, or the line of your argument may have shifted somewhat.


  1. Finalize essay plan

The structure of most features plans can be summarized as Introduction – Arguments – Conclusion. State your case as briefly and rapidly as possible, present the evidence for this case in the body, then sum up and try to ‘lift’ the argument to a higher level in your conclusion.


  1. RelevanceAt all stages, you should keep the question in mind. Keep asking yourself ‘Is this evidence directly relevant to the topic I have been asked to discuss?
    1. Personalities
    2. Commemoration
    3. Social and Cultural Sources
    4. Science and Technology
    5. Psychological Features
    6. History
    7. Instruction and Educational sources
    8. Investigative features

Sources f Feature


5.         Writing Interview


Defining Interview:

Different scholars have defined interview differently, however, most of them agreed that

Asking questions to obtain opinion, ideas or special information on a topic of interest to the public from a prominent person or a recognized authority”

Due to the public acceptance and popularity amongst the reader, the newspapers regularly include interviews in their publications.  Interview is one of the most widely used forms of journalistic techniques.


Interviews have four major categories

a)            Informative Interviews: it involves gathering of information about new events or issues

b)            Feature Interviews: Usually conducted with a celebrity like a movie star, sports hero, politician etc.

c)            Opinion Interview: – Conducted with prominent persons to sought opinion on an active issue.

d)            Symposium Interview: it involves several people talking on the same topic to get a variety of viewpoint.


Art of Interview:

Before conducting interview the moderator or interviewer needs to be prepared thoroughly.  He/She must follow the following general criteria before conducting an interview:

  1. Selection of topic for interview
  2. Selection of Interviewee
  3. Contact with the Source
  4. Selection of place for interview
  5. Selection of date and time for interview
  6. Conducting research on interviewee.
  7. Gathering all relevant research/information on the topic
  8. Gathering information related to interviewee e.g. his/her special interest, his past accomplishments, personal ideology and weaknesses.
  9. Preparing a comprehensive list of questionnaire
  10. Arranging all technical requirements and equipment needs.


The interviewer should following these interview techniques:

  1. Introduce yourself clearly and accurately;
  2. Be sure to get the person’s name and title;
  3. Be friendly, sympathetic and courteous;
  4. Begin the interview with light and interesting question
  5. Avoid Yes/no questions
  6. Be courageous and prepared to draw questions from the ongoing discussions
  7. Avoid ambiguous question
  8. Do not allow the interviewee to take control of the situation or to misguide you
  9. Never agree to ask pre-agreed questions
  10. Make sure that you understand what the interviewee had said
  11. Keep on probing until the point is fully explained.


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Journalistic Writing and Differentiate Journalistic Writing from Literature

Discuss prerequisites of journalistic writing and differentiate journalistic writing from literature.


Basic Principles:

Journalism seeks to answer these questions in every story

  • Who
  • What
  • When
  • Where
  • Why
  • How

The newsworthiness of a story may be judged by:

  • Proximity
  • Timeliness
  • Impact
  • Conflict
  • Prominence
  • Currency
  • Human Interest
  • The Unusual

Pre-Requisites of Journalistic Writing and Differences between Journalistic and other Forms of Writing:


According to American Society of Newspaper Editors, Journalism is to communicate to the human race what its members do, feel and think since this purpose of journalism is different from the other forms of communications.

Journalistic writing is different from other forms of writing in several respects

–               the kind of knowledge it communicates;

–               the audience for whom the communication is intended

–               the manner in which communication takes place

  • Like other writings, journalistic writing is made up of words, phrases, clauses, sentences and paragraphs.
  • The discourse type may be narrative, descriptive, instructive, expository or argumentative.
  • It follows the same rules of spelling, punctuation and grammar, yet there are certain differences because newspapers are written in a hurry and read quickly; that is why journalist work cannot e compared with writing formats.
  • The journalistic writing must be brief, brisk and bright.

Points for Effective Journalistic Writing:

Keep it Short & Simple.

Use short, simple words: no Latin roots, no complex constructions, no jargon, no long words when a short one will do and no showing off. The point is to communicate simply, clearly and effectively. “Expenditure” is hard, “spending” is easy. Simple sentences… when it gets too complex, with too many clauses, break it up. One point per sentence. One idea per paragraph. About 25 words to a paragraph.

Keep it Clear & Concise.

Be direct, local and personal. Use active not passive verbs and short, “bouncy” sentences that actively engage the reader. Point out how the story affects the reader. You are not writing for a university lecturer – you are writing for your mum or sister or best friend. Direct communication reassures the reader that you have them in mind.

Make the First Paragraph Count.

This is the only paragraph likely to be read so it should carry the key message, preferably in a strong image that will stay with the reader. It should rivet the reader’s attention so they want to know more. Then build an “inverted pyramid” with further important information first and dispensable detail later in the story.

Pay Attention to Detail.

Spelling and grammar are important. Get a dictionary and a thesaurus. Use the spell-check on your computer. Go over your story at least three times to make sure that it makes sense, that it flows, that you can substantiate all facts, that you have told both sides of the story and that you have explained all the relevant points.


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Definition and Techniques of Writing Skill

Explain the techniques of writing skill and indicate problems in writing.  Point out the differences between spoken and written language.

Defining Writing Skills:

Good writing skills are essential for effective communication. The better you write, the more easily readers will understand you. Learning to write well takes time and practice.
It has been agreed that writing is a means of communication made possible through graphics symbols, arranged according to certain conventions to form words which in turn are arranged to form sentences. The sentences are logically and grammatically connected to form a piece of writing.

Writing like listening involves a writer (producer) and a reader (receiver). Writing involves interaction between the writer (encoder) and the reader (decoder).  Communicative writing means the use of orthography in order to construct grammatically correct sentences which communicate a meaning to the reader

Orthography + lexis + grammar + meaning = communicative writing

Techniques of Writing

Smith suggests that both writers and readers must respect the writing conventions in order for communication to take place.  Writing has its conventions for spelling, for punctuation, for grammar, for paraphrasing and capitalization. There are more than one convention for arranging words grammatically and meaningfully into sentences and conventions about how sentences themselves are interrelated.  Thus an effective piece of writing request a number of things including the graphic systems of the language.

For a natural piece of writing coherence and cohesion are also extremely important features.  Coherence is the thread or the theme of the writing that keeps the text together and cohesion is part of the system of the language, expressed partly in grammar ad partly through vocabulary.  Cohesion is also expressed in other features such as punctuation and intonation.

In everyday conversation we make all kinds of points or assertions in written form.  To communicate clearly and effectively we need to learn, practice and apply writing skills.  During the process we may discover that we have a positive attitude about writing.  However, even if we have mixed or negative feelings, we are probably now more aware of the fact.  Such awareness can be a vital first step in changing attitude.

Always be sure to limit the point that starts a paragraph.  If you do not limit your point, you may have to write a book to support the point adequately.  Like words sentences should also be made specific, making indefinite writing into lively image filled writing.  The details how us exactly what has happened as compared to a general idea like

Problems in Writing

According to Smith:

“For some people writing often comes easily, others find it a continued struggle.  Some people find writing a strain, others a release.  Students very often find it hard to compose a piece of writing since they do not know the right words, they do not know the right grammar or they are not good at composing and organizing.  Sometimes they cannot even think of anything to write.  This results in dry, flat, mechanical prose full of grammatical errors and empty of life and contents.”

Soe of the major factors contributing for a difficult writing are as follows:

1.            Psychological Factors

Writing involves knowledge of the writer and its purpose.  Lack of knowledge will make it difficult to write well.

2.            Linguistic Factors

Writing is the real test of one’s linguistic abilities whereas in speaking a speaker can take help from paralinguistic devices.  Similarly a non-native person will not have the same range of lexical and syntactic choices available and may find it difficult to write as compared to a native person.

3.            Cognitive Factors

Cognitive factors relate to the interest in the specific writing task.  Writing without a purpose or audience i.e. artificiality of the writing task makes writing an unpleasant job.

4.            Process of Writing

Writing is an extremely complex undertaking with a number of operations such as generating ideas, planning and outlining, drafting, revising etc.  At any time a line can be erased, a page thrown away, and even sometimes everything that has been written can be changed, added to, and deleted from ad put into a completely different order.  Writing is thus viewed as a series of overlapping and interacting process.

Linguists divide composition writing into three distinct stages

–               Pre-writing

–               Writing

–               Post-Writing

Pre-writing is preparatory stage and involves thinking, reflecting and planning about what can go on.

Writing is the real act of putting ideas to pen, translating images into meaning.  It is a process of discovering and exploring ideas and putting these on paper.

Post-Writing is written, it needs reading, reviewing and editing to be modified and polished.

Difference between Spoken and Written Language

Both spoken and written discourse represents an interactive process of negotiation; however the process of speaking and writing are not identical.  Many professional academic writers have expressed their opinion regarding the differences between the two, which are listed below:

Difference Spoken Written
Function Speech is basically interaction between the speaker and the listener. Written language is mainly transactional in function.


Process Speakers make use of linguistic, paralinguistic and prosodic features such as stress, speed, loudness, facial expression and gestures.


Speech can be interrupted for asking clarification.  A speaker can backtrack, clarify and revise ideas as listeners question or disagree.


Speech has to hear in real times.




Speech cannot be reorganized once delivered.

Writers, rely on linguistic and geo graph logical devices such as punctuation and capitalization to get the message across.


Writing cannot be interrupted and a writer has to compensate for all those disadvantages since writing is a monologue.



Written languages can be stores and can be read over space and time.


Writings can be revised even after written.

Product Spoken communication can be planned, unplanned or spontaneous.  Spoken text does not necessarily follow the conventions.

A good speech may not follow any given format, a title, heading, an introduction and a conclusion or may not clearly divided into paragraphs 


Written communication is usually carefully planned and convention bound which allows to be understood by the readers.

A good piece of writing should be coherent and cohesive.  It should have a title or heading; it should have an intro, a development and a conclusion and must be divided into paragraphs divided



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Interview with Foreign Minister as News Reporter

Imagine you are a newspaper reporter and reporting a news story about general elections.  You are assigned to interview a politician. What type of questions would you ask to satisfy your readers?  Write at least such 20 questions.

Most importantly you need to hear what you’re saying. In case you’re drawing closer the meeting without hear what you’re saying, overlook it. You’re not going to go anyplace by any stretch of the imagination. The legislator will run rings around you and entirely right as well.

The other thing is not to be frightened of him. You shouldn’t be threatened by whoever you are meeting.

Be sensibly quick on your feet. In the event that he or she tries to escape with something, you must spot it and attempt and get on it.

The thing is to remain be constant.

Proposed Questionnaire

1.Let me know about your Academic foundation?

2.Brief us about your vocation in governmental issues?

3.Advise us about your political affiliations since most recent 10 years?

4. Elaborate your arrangements/focus for giving better social courtesies in your voting public?

5. 2/3 of our populace is uneducated. By what method would we be able to kill lack of education?

6. Why individuals ought to vote you? Legitimize it from your reputation.

7. Why you see yourself as the most suitable hopeful?

8. What criteria the voters ought to receive in choosing their leader(s)?

9. Do you concur that hopeful must be graduate? Clarify the advantages.

10. By what method would we be able to make the part of ladies more successful in choice making?

11. Is it true that you are fulfilled by our present arrangement of governmental issues? Does it require monstrous changes?

12. Do you have any proposal to enhance the discretionary framework?

13. What isn’t right with our political framework? Is it safe to say that it was the significant donor to 3-marshal laws/military principle?

14. Clarify your goals, which you might want to achieve if chose?

15. Do you have faith in abusing open’s religious feelings for political additions?

16. What criteria open ought to take after to gage the achievements of the chose part?

17. Why a greater part of government officials are discovered included in debasement when they are in force?

18. What are your perspectives about the majority rule frameworks being taken after inside of the political gatherings?

19. Is it the shortcoming of our political organizations that lead the exploitation of restriction?

20. In larger part of our political gatherings, the top authority stays confined to a man or crew. What are upsides and downsides of such practice?

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Five news stories that appeared in Urdu newspapers Translated in English

News Story No. 1

The Network for Consumer Protection has expressed concern at the dramatic increase in sugar price and alleged that sugar barons having clout in the government have created an artificial shortage.

Sugar price has surged to an all-time high of Rs120 per kg in a week from Rs85 on Oct 31, proving that the government has miserably failed to keep a check on food prices and provide relief to consumers, a press release issued by the organisation said on Tuesday.

Its executive coordinator, Dr Arif Azad, said roots of the problem lay in the sugar lobby’s political clout in determining sugar output, timing of import and scaremongering about rises in prices.

“For the sake of protecting consumers from artificially inflated sugar price rises, the government has to bring in regulatory measures to rein in the power of sugar lobby,” he said.

He called for an investigation to fix responsibility for a ‘criminal’ delay in sugar import which, he said, had given a chance to mill owners to sell the commodity at high prices.

Dr Azad rejected the Pakistan Sugar Mills Association’s claim that damage to sugarcane crop in recent floods was the main cause of the surge in price.

“While this may be partly true, the real reason has been collusive price-fixing behaviours which have been highlighted by the Competition Commission.”

If sugar tycoons and the government departments concerned had taken measures to import sugar in time, the commodity would have been available in the market at not more than Rs70 per kg, he said.

Dr Azad wondered as to why no policy statement had been given on the artificial sugar crisis and even the main opposition parties were not exerting pressure on the government to control the price.

However, the CCP is of the view that the crisis has evolved because of hoarding.

The commission’s chairperson, Rahat Kaunain Hassan, said it was closely monitoring the crisis and would intervene only when it found a violation of the Competition Act.

An investigation by the CCP last year had found that sugar mills were violating the rules of open market competition. The investigation was carried out after mills unilaterally raised the prices, compelling the Supreme Court to fix a rate.

Ms Hassan said the CCP was not a price regulatory authority, but it believed in the principles of free import and free market where prices were fixed on the basis of availability.

“It’s purely an issue of hoarding, and not pricing,” she said, adding that strict measures by the provinces were required to eliminate hoarding.

In reply to a question, the CCP chief said there must have been some faults in the government’s import policy.

She said the Trading Corporation should develop a mechanism under which the stocks of sugar should go to retailers instead of hoarders. The issue will not be resolved by merely opening tenders.

She said the provincial governments should launch a campaign to impound the commodity from hoarders and make it available in the market.

In India, sugar is being retailed at Rs55, in Brazil at Rs60 and in the US at Rs117 per kg.


News Story No-2

The entire Hazara division continued to simmer in anger and resentment on Tuesday with mobs having almost taken over Haripur, Abbottabad and Mansehra, blocking roads and damaging public and private property during protests against Monday’s violence in which seven people were killed and scores of others were injured.

As the deceased were laid is to rest processions taken out in different areas added to the tension. Abbottabad was paralysed with a complete strike for the second day.

The protesters raised slogans against police and the renaming of NWFP as Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa and demanded that Hazara be declared a separate province.

Haider Zaman, chairman of the Anti-Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Action Committee, reiterated his stance for a separate province and appealed to his followers to remain peaceful and refrain from damaging property.

News Story No.3

The committee has declared three-day mourning in Abbottabad.

Talking to newsmen, Mr Zaman called upon the Chief Justice of Pakistan and the Chief Justice of Peshawar High Court to take suo motu notice of police firing on peaceful protesters.

The Karakoram Highway and all link roads in the town remained blocked as protesters burned tyres and pelted vehicles with stones.

They pulled down billboards, looted an arms shop at Fawara Chowk, ransacked the district office of PML-N and smashed windows of the DCO office.

They also demonstrated outside the DIG and Commissioner’s offices. Police fired tear gas shells to disperse the protesters, injuring four of them.

Four protesters received electric shock while pulling down a billboard at Mandian Chowk.

The Frontier Constabulary was deployed in various areas to prevent the situation for deteriorating any further.

All government and private offices and banks remained closed. The district administration had earlier closed educational institutions for an indefinite period.

Lawyers boycotted courts and condemned police brutality. They demanded an immediate removal of divisional administration officials.

Abbottabad DCO Munir Azam expressed grief over Monday’s incidents and appealed to the people not to damage property.

In Haripur, protesters ransacked and set on fire the office of PML-N MNA Sardar Mushtaq Khan and pelted the house of ANP’s provincial minister Qazi Asad with stones.

The traders observed a complete strike and all bazaars, markets and shops were closed. Transporters kept all bus and vans off the road.

Lawyers boycotted courts and attended the gaibana namaz-i-janaza of the seven victims of Monday’s violence.

Former foreign minister Goher Ayub Khan, former minister of state Omar Ayub Khan, former provincial minister Ejaz Ali Durrani and former district nazim Yusuf Ayub also took part in the protest and sit-in.

A complete strike was also observed across the Mansehra district. Rallies and protest demonstrations were held in Mansehra, Oghi, Balakot and Garhi Habibullah.

The protesters burned tyres on roads and blocked traffic. They attacked NGO offices in Ghazikot. Police used tear gas and fired shots in the air to disperse them.

A group of protesters attacked shops and banks on the Abbottabad road and one of them was injured in firing

Story No.4

A cross-border marriage stripped of romance

The subcontinent’s biggest tabloid story in a long time has finally ended. Hopefully. Sania Mirza and Shoaib Malik have married after what resembled a fast-paced pulp thriller involving a spurned woman he was alleged to have married and then divorced amid bitter recriminations. As if this was not enough, there was a high-pitched jingoistic media debate about who owns Mirza now – would she turn out to play tennis for Pakistan? (Mirza, who is currently ranked a lowly 92 in the world, insists she will continue to play for India.) This was the kind of tabloid frenzy to which the usually staid and conservative media in India and Pakistan are unaccustomed.

The Mirza-Malik wedding was the “romance that gripped two nations”, according to The Guardian. In reality, the treatment given the story completely stripped it of its romance. News networks vied with each other to dig up dirt about Malik and his alleged ex-wife, Ayesha Siddiqui. “Your jaw drops at the performance the stand-up anchors put up,” wrote media critic Sevanti Ninan. “Grown men and women paid to harangue, and to sell the proposition that this is and can be the only matter of earthshaking importance for a large country of a billion-plus people.”

Things appeared to be no better across the border with the story dominating the Pakistani news networks. “What we saw on our screens was tabloid journalism of the sort usually purveyed by the dregs of the profession,” fumed the Dawn newspaper. “In a country racked by militancy and terrorism, should a celebrity marriage dominate the news on a day when dozens are killed in suicide attacks?”

News stories No 5.


When Elizabeth Smart was 14 years old, a man entered her bedroom in her family’s home in Salt Lake City on June 5, 2002, held a knife to her throat and told her he would kill her if she did not come with him.


The case captured headlines around the nation: a blond girl with an angelic face kidnapped from her own home in a good neighborhood, while her little sister lay in the bed next to her. Nine months later, on March 12, 2003, Smart was found alive in the company of self-proclaimed prophet Brian David Mitchell and his wife.


The wife, Wanda Barzee, eventually pleaded guilty and is serving a 15-year-prison sentence. But Mitchell, a street preacher who called himself “Immanuel,” evaded justice for years until he was finally declared competent and went on trial this fall in federal court.


The defense maintained that Mitchell was delusional and could not be held responsible for his crimes. With his long beard, Mitchell, 57, certainly looked less than sane as he was brought into the courtroom, singing hymns at the top of his lungs every day.

But the true star of the trial was Elizabeth Smart herself. Now 23, she took the stand for three days and described in excruciating detail how Mitchell terrorized her over “nine months of hell.” He threatened repeatedly to kill her and her family. He raped her every day, forced her to drink alcohol and use drugs, and tethered her to a tree at night so she could not escape.

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Guidelines of precis writing

It was not so in Greece, where philosophers professed less, and undertook more. Parmenides pondered nebulously over the mystery of knowledge; but the pre-Socratics kept their eyes with fair consistency upon the firm earth, and sought to ferret out its secrets by observation and experience, rather than to create it by exuding dialectic; there were not many introverts among the Greeks. Picture Democritus, the Laughing Philosopher; would he not be perilous company for the desiccated scholastics who have made the disputes about the reality of the external world take the place of medieval discourses on the number of angles that could sit on the point of a pin? Picture Thales, who met the challenge that philosophers were numskulls by “cornering the market” and making a fortune in a year. Picture Anaxagoras, who did the work of Darwin for the Greeks and turned Pericles form a wire-pulling politician into a thinker and a statesman, Picture old Socrates, unafraid of the sun or the stars, gaily corrupting young men and overturning governments; what would he have done to these bespectacled seedless philosophizers who now litter the court of the once great Queen? To Plato, as to these virile predecessors, epistemology was but the vestibule of philosophy, akin to the preliminaries of love; it was pleasant enough for a while, but it was far from the creative consummation that drew wisdom’s lover on. Here and there in the shorter dialogues, the master dallied amorously with the problems of perception, thought, and knowledge; but in his more spacious moments he spread his vision over larger fields, built himself ideas states and brooded over the nature and destiny of man. And finally in Aristotle philosophy was honoured in all her boundless scope and majesty; all her mansions were explored and made beautiful with order; here every problem found a place and every science brought its toll to wisdom. These men knew that the function of philosophy was not to bury herself in the obscure retreats of epistemology, but to come forth bravely into every realm of inquiry, and gather up all knowledge for the coordination and illumination of human character and human life.


A précis is a brief summary. Writing a précis is valuable training in composition. Since the writing requires you to be clear and concise, you must choose your words carefully and arrange them skillfully so you get the maximum amount of meaning into the minimum space.

In addition to its value as a writing exercise, précis work is excellent reading practice. In order to summarize another’s ideas in your own words, you must understand the idea thoroughly.

Guide line of Précis

Basic steps in writing

1. A précis is a short summary

It is not a paraphrase, which merely says in different and simpler words exactly what the passage being paraphrased has to say. A paraphrase may be as long as the passage itself. A précis rarely is more than one-third the length of the original selection and may be only one-fourth as long.

2. A précis gives only the “heart” of a passage.

It omits repetition and such details as examples, illustrations, and adjectives unless they are of unusual importance.

3. a précis is written entirely in the words of the person writing it, not in the words of the original selection.

Avoid the temptation to lift long phrases and whole sentences from the original.

4. A précis is written from the point of view of the author whose work is being summarized.

Do not begin with such expressions as “This author says” or “The paragraph means.” Begin as though you were summarizing your own writing.

In writing a précis proceed as follows:

1.      Read carefully, sentence by sentence, the passage to be summarized. Try to grasp the writer’s main point. Spotting the topic sentence will help. Look up in the dictionary any words whose meaning is not absolutely clear. As you read, take brief notes to be used in your writing.

2.     When you have finally decided what the author’s main point is, write it out in your own words. Do not use the wording of the original except for certain key words which you may find indispensable. If you cannot translate the idea into language of your own, you do not understand them very well. Be especially careful not to rely too much on the topic sentence. Do not add any opinions or ideas of your own.

3.     Revise your writing until you are sure that you have given an accurate summary.

4.     Usually you will find your précis is too long, if it is more than one-third the length of the original, it is too long, continue your revision until you have reduced the précis to the proper length.


Précis of passage


Title: Critically evaluate précis 2006


Historically eminent thinkers in Greece before Socrates were inclined towards unearthing the mysteries of life through practical media rather than constructing reality through cumbersome theoretical undertakings. Therefore it was an anomalous interlude when philosophical discourses became centered on futile excursions of purely theoretical value. Indisputably, for great figures like Plato, such an approach could be an initial stage in philosophical perfection; but certainly not its end product. The latter included broad themes like political existence of man. In this wholesome perspective, operational aspects of existence, for instance ameliorating human character, was the ultimate goal of philosophy 

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