concept of speaking and listening skills

Definition of speaking skills Speaking is described as an interactive process of constructing meaning that involves producing and receiving and processing information. Speaking depends on the context or the situation, Context includes the physical environment, the purposes for speaking is more often spontaneous, open ended, and evolving. Speaking requires learners to not only know how to produce specific points of language such as grammar, pronunciation, or vocabulary but also that they understand when, where, why and in what ways to produce language.   Practical suggestions for teaching speaking                     English textbooks can be exploited to teach speaking skills. At middle stage, student cannot be able to produce perfect, oral language. They will make mistakes in speaking. Some time they can produce only one or two sentences when they are asked to participate in discussion. The teacher should combine his effort to use text book communicate by introducing following exercises […]

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Examine any news article from a news papers and choose adverbs and adjectives

newspaper headlines are often incomplete sentences (i.e. Difficult Times Ahead). Here is a guide to the most common exceptions found in newspaper headlines. Noun Phrases Headlines often contain a noun phrase with no verb. A noun phrase describes a noun (i.e. around strange, exotic people). Here are some examples of noun phrase headlines:  Under Pressure from Boss Unexpected Visit Overwhelming Response of Voters It’s useful to ask yourself questions such as: From what?, About what?, From whom?, To whom? etc. when reading these type of headlines. By asking yourself these questions, you can begin preparing yourself for the article. This practice helps the brain prepare itself by starting to think about vocabulary related to the subject. Here’s an example: Unexpected Visit The questions I can ask myself are: From whom? Why was the visit unexpected? Who was visited? etc. these questions will help focus my mind on vocabulary related to […]

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MECHANICS OF GRAMMAR

MECHANICS OF GRAMMAR A)  Start Punctuation (Capitalization). B)     End Punctuation Full – stop (period), question marks and exclamation points, signal the end of a sentence. Ø Use a period after plain statements or commands, and abbreviations (not those abbreviations that serve as names of organizations or Government agencies e.g. UNICFF. WHO. FAO. etc.) Ø Use a question mark after questions. Do not use a question mark after an indirect question. Ø Use an exclamation point after strong emotional expressions. C) Internal Punctuation Commas, semicolons, colons, dashes, parentheses, question marks, apostrophes, italics, ellipsis points, brackets.   CAPITALIZATION Generally it is used to mark the beginning .of a sentence or to indicate that a word is a proper noun. – Capitalize personal or official titles or their abbreviations when you use them as names in direct address or when you use them before people’s names. Capitalize the names and abbreviations, of academic […]

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Grammatical Units of English

Grammatical units of English. English grammar terms relates to the English language. Some terms here may have additional or extended meanings when applied to other languages. For example, “case” in some languages applies to pronouns and nouns. In English, nouns do not have case and therefore no reference to nouns is made in its definition here. Term Definition active voice one of two voices in English; a direct form of expression where the subject performs or “acts” the verb; see also passive voice eg: “Many people eat rice” adjective part of speech that typically describes or “modifies” a noun eg: “It was a big dog.” adjective clause seldom-used term for relative clause Adjunct word or phrase that adds information to a sentence and that can be removed from the sentence without making the sentence ungrammatical eg: I met John at school. adverb word that modifies a verb, an adjective or […]

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Explain various parts of speech with your own examples

Parts of Speech In grammar, a part of speech (also a word class, a lexical class, or a lexical category) is a linguistic category of words (or more precisely lexical items), which is generally defined by the syntactic or morphological behavior of the lexical item in question. Common linguistic categories include noun and verb, among others. There are open word classes, which constantly acquire new members, and closed word classes, which acquire new members infrequently if at all.   A words have been traditionally classified into eight lexical categories, or parts of speech (and are still done so in most dictionaries): Noun: any abstract or concrete entity Pronoun: any substitute for a noun or noun phrase Adjective: any qualifier of a noun Verb: any action or state of being Adverb: any qualifier of an adjective, verb, or other adverb Preposition: any establisher of relation and syntactic context Conjunction: any syntactic […]

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How you would differentiate between linguistics and non-linguistics communication?

Explain the concept of Linguistic and non-linguistic Communication? DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LINGUISTIC AND NON LINGUISTIC COMMUNICATION As language may not always be used to communicate, so also communication may be possible without necessarily using spoken language. For example sign language. Deaf and dumb people have their own non-linguistic code (gestures and hands signs) to express themselves or to communicate with one another. The linguistic key is the tone, manner or spirit in which an act is performed. Linguistic communication differs from non-linguistic communication. For communicating linguistically, the whole language is available. Sometimes one can communicate in even more than one language, whereas the choices are limited for a non-linguistic communicator, such as, facial expressions, signs and gestures, movements of hands etc. An interesting point here is that even linguistic communication is accompanied by certain elements of non-linguistic communication. While talking a speaker often uses facial expressions and hand movements to convey […]

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