Definition of speaking skills
Speaking is described as an interactive process of constructing meaning that involves producing and receiving and processing information. Speaking depends on the context or the situation, Context includes the physical environment, the purposes for speaking is more often spontaneous, open ended, and evolving. Speaking requires learners to not only know how to produce specific points of language such as grammar, pronunciation, or vocabulary but also that they understand when, where, why and in what ways to produce language.
Practical suggestions for teaching speaking
English textbooks can be exploited to teach speaking skills. At middle stage, student cannot be able to produce perfect, oral language. They will make mistakes in speaking. Some time they can produce only one or two sentences when they are asked to participate in discussion. The teacher should combine his effort to use text book communicate by introducing following exercises
Suggestion for speaking activities at pre-reading stage
Speaking activities at pre-reading stage
1- Discussion on the picture
While introducing the lesson, teacher may show a picture related to lesson teacher may asking the students questions about the teacher, the people and the action of people in the picture in order to get oral answers from the students.
2- Discussion on the topic
Teacher may write the topic on blackboard and ask the students what they understand by the topic.
3-Asking General Comprehension questions
Teacher may ask students some general comprehension questions before the students read the lesson
Speaking activities in writing class
The elements of speaking can be introduce in writing class before writing stage of the following activities can be done.
1. Discussion of topic outline
Teacher may discuss the topic outline of story with the students before writing it.
2- Class composition
Teacher may use class composition technique. In this technique, he may ask the students to give at least on sentence about topic and then teacher may pool these write story /paragraph with the help of these sentences.
3- Speech composition
To develop both speaking and writing skills at one time, The teacher may hold a speech competition in the class teacher may divide the class in to group speeches on each topic and may deliver the speech in class
4-Speaking through games
Speaking can be learnt d taught best through games
5- Mutual interviewing.
In a new class, when a new session starts. Teacher may ask each student to interview with the other students whom his name, father name, father’s occupation, number of brothers and sisters, his hobbies etc.
6. Likes and dislikes.
Students are asked to work in pairs and with mutual discussion find out five things they all like and five things they all dislike.
7-Find the difference
Students will be divided in to pairs, one student will get picture A and other student will get picture B. both partners will not show their pictures to each other. But will describe their picture in turn and will try to find difference between two pictures
Listening is an active, knowledge guided process. Listening is a process, which involves perceiving that there’s systematic massage in a continuous stream of sound. Listeners are involved continuous cognitive process, in which factors of attention and memory are vitally involved. Listening involves the construction of a message from phonic material.
Listening is neglected study in school and colleges even through managers from around the world consider it a significant part of one’s communication skills. Our review is concern common faults of listening, purposes for listening, and results of good listening.
Listening is as important as the other three components of communication, namely speaking reading and writing. There are some causes follow.
- Ø Prejudice against the speaker.
- Ø External Distractions.
- Ø Thinking speed.
- Ø Premature Evaluation.
- Ø Semantic stereotypes.
- Ø Delivery.
1-Prejudice against the speaker
Perhaps we heard the quotation. “Who is saying it shouts so loudly that what is said is easily forgotten.” We are distracted because who the speaker is conflicts with our attitudes.
The preceding fault was more of an internal distraction. Some non-verbal cues are strong external distractions.
Most of speak between 80 to 160 words per minutes. Yet people have the capacity to think at the phenomenal rate up to 800 words per minute. That leaves time on the listener’s hands.
4– Semantic stereotypes
As certain kinds of people bother us so do their words. An interesting class inheritance occurs when discussing this question.
Purposes of listeners method
It should be no surprise that poor listening is not entirely the fault of the speakers.
There are four good reasons.
1- To gain new information and ideas.
2- To question and test evidence and assumptions.
3- To be inspired.
4- To improve your own communication.
There are results of good listening.
1- Leads to helpful, positive attitudes by understanding the hindrances that lie in way of good listening.
2- Permits the speaker and listeners to improve communication because each side is more aware of and receptive to the other viewpoint.
3- Indicates by feed back to the speaker that listeners are interested, in turn, the speaker tries harder to give his or her best presentation.
4- Helps listeners obtain useful information on which they can make accurate decisions.