The Exponential Principle
This theory states that, as the cultural base grows, its possible uses tend to grow in a geometric ratio. To illustrate: if we have only two chemicals in a laboratory, only one combination (A-B) is possible (A-B-C, A-B, A-C, and B-C,), with four chemicals, ten combinations; with five chemicals, twenty-five/ and so on. As the size of the culture base grows by addition, the possible combinations of these elements grow by multiplication. This helps to explain today’s high rate of discoveries and invention. A vast accumulation of scientific technical knowledge is shard by all the civilized societies, and from this base new inventions and discoveries flow in a rising tide.
To understand the term “value” in it true sociological sense, it is, absolutely necessary to discuss the elements of culture.
Norms are shared rules or guidelines that prescribe the behaviour that is appropriate in a given situation. Norms define how people “ought” to behave under particular circumstances in a particular society. We conform to the norms so readily that we are hardly conscious of their existence. In fact, we notice departures from norms tried to shake hands when you were introduced, but you might be a little startled if he or she kissed you on both cheeks. Yet this form of greeting is appropriate in other societies. When We visit another society whose norms are different, we quickly become aware that we do things this fashion, and they do them that fashion.
Folkways And Mores
Norms ensure that social life proceeds smoothly, for they give us guidelines for our own behaviour and reliable expectations for the behaviour of others. This social function of norms is so important that there is always strong social pressure on people to conform. But although most of us conform to most norms most of the time, all of us tend to violate some norms occasionally. In the case .of certain norms, the folkways,,a fair amount of non-conformity may be tolerated, but in the case, of certain other norms, the mores, very little range is permitted.