Knowledge Gap Hypothesis

Knowledge Gap Hypothesis

Knowledge Gap Hypothesis: Introduction: This theory is concerned mainly with “information” and “knowledge” and emphasizes that knowledge is not distributed equally throughout society. There are haves and have-nots with regard to information just as material wealth Information is very important in our society because any developed country depends on well-informed citizens. It appears certain that information will be even more important in the future as we move into an increasingly technological age. Many contemporary issues will require information and an informed public for the solutions for such issues. Role of mass communication: * One of the great promises of mass communication is that it provides people with information they need. * It has the potential of reaching people who have not been reached by other means (poor and undeveloped people). One example of an effort to use mass communication to provide information to the disadvantaged is the “educational TV program” […]

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Priming Theory

Priming Theory

 What is priming? Explain the term scientifically.   What is Priming Theory? If you have you ever heard a new word for the first time in your life and then suddenly noticed it popping up everywhere from the news to your grandmother’s dinner conversation, you know that the human brain can be primed to notice things that it ordinarily would completely overlook. The same thing happens when the press begins spending time on an issue that might ordinarily simmer on a back burner; once the issue becomes news, it tends to become relevant. When the public begins to view candidates in light of a particular issue that has been brought up by the media even though it was not a consideration prior to its introduction, it is an example of the priming effect. For example, in spite of the fact that no one cared about whether the candidates recycled just […]

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Agenda setting theory (Maxwell McCombs and Donald L.Shaw)

Discuss the agenda setting theory. Your answer should give background of the agenda setting theory, main findings of the Chapel Hill Study and the need for conducting Charlotte Study.   Agenda setting theory (Maxwell McCombs and Donald L. Shaw) Media influence affects the order of presentation in news reports about news events, issues in the public mind. More importance to a news-more importance attributed by audience. Media Priorities It says what people should think about and how people should think about. These are the levels of agenda setting theory: First Level: Mostly studied by researchers, media uses objects or issues to influence the people what people should think about. Second level: Media focuses on the characters of issues how people should think about. Agenda setting theory used in political ad, campaigns, business news, PR (public relation) etc. The main concept associated with the agenda setting theory is gate keeping. Gate […]

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The Role of the Community in Decision Making

The Role of the Community in Decision Making

Highlight the role of community in decision making.   The Role of the Community in Decision Making: It also became clear that although the earlier research had allowed for the study of individ­ual decisions, it did not permit study of decision making on a community level. The next study introduced the notion of diffusion, or widening communication of a new idea, over time through the social structure of a community (Katz, 1957). The diffusion study examined how medical doctors make decisions to adopt new drugs. All doctors in several specialties in four Midwestern cities were interviewed. Besides the usual demographic data (age, medical school attended, etc.) and data about attitudes, pre­scription of drugs, exposure to information sources and influence, and other details, the doctors were asked to name the three colleagues they were most apt to talk with about cases, the three they were most apt to seek information and […]

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Role of Groups in Mass Communication

Groups as Instruments of Change

Do you think a person’s group influence his / her attitudes and behaviours? Discuss the role of groups in mass communication.   Groups as Instruments of Change: Because of the power of social influence, groups can sometimes be used as agents or instru­ments of change. Group structure and group dynamics are very much a part of the process at work in organizations such as Alcoholics Anonymous, Weight Watchers, and some groups that help people to stop smoking. Thr principles of group norms and group pres­sure can often be seen at work in these kinds of efforts. Alcoholics Anonymous, for in­stance, has a group norm that permits and encourages people to talk about their problems with alcohol. This is a reversal of the norm in the culture at large, which discourages talk­ing about an individual’s alcohol problem and almost makes such discussion a taboo. AA members also share other norms, such […]

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Various Techniques of Persuasion

Various Techniques of Persuasion

What are the various techniques of persuasion? Explain with   your own examples. Techniques of Persuasion We now turn to three important techniques commonly used in persuasion: appeals to humor, appeals to sex, and extensive repetition of an advertising message. Audiences and communicators need to understand their applications—and their potential misuse. Appeals to Humor: The use of humor is a popular technique in communication. Many public speakers ob­viously believe in the importance of beginning their talks with a humorous story. Studies have suggested that 15 to 20 percent of television commercials contain some element of humor (Kelly & Solomon, 1975; Duncan & Nelson, 1985). In the typical study of the effects of humor on attitude change or other variables in the hierarchy of effects, different groups are exposed to different versions of the same mes­sage—one with humor and one without. For instance, Brooker (1981) examined the effects of humor in two […]

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Heider’s Balance, Newcomb’s Symmetry, Osgood’s Congruity & Cognitive Dissonance Theories

Discuss the following theories:         Heider’s Balance Theory          Newcomb’s Symmetry Theory        Osgood’s Congruity Theory    Festinger’s Theory of Cognitive Dissonance.   Heider’s Balance Theory: Most writers usually credit Fritz Heider (1946) with the earliest articulation of a consis­tency theory, although the informal concept can be traced back to earlier work (see Kiesler et al., 1969, p. 157). As a psychologist, Heider was concerned with the way an individual organizes attitudes toward people and objects in relation to one another within that individual’s own cognitive structure. Heider postulated that unbalanced states produce tension and generate forces to restore balance. He says that “the concept of a balanced state designates a situation in which the perceived units and the experienced sentiments co-exist without stress” (1958, p. 176). Heider’s paradigm focused on two individuals, a person (P), the object of the analysis, some […]

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