RADIO BROADCASTING SYSTEM PAKISTAN

RADIO BROADCASTING SYSTEM Broadcasting: Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video signals which transmit programs to an audience. The audience may be the general public or a relatively large sub-audience, such as children or young adults. RADIO BROADCASTING: Broadcasting system is a chain of technically / electronically coupled elements which is used to pick up an ordinary sound wave, convert it to an electrical wave (of some frequency say from 50Hz to 10 Khz) without any change in its parameters. This sound wave is fed to a radio transmitter where its frequency is again raised by combining it to third wave of a higher frequency called the radio frequency. This is the frequency which is allotted to a particular station (in Pakistan a Frequency Allocation Board (FAB) allotted a frequency). This is called the carrier frequency while the wave of the second frequency is called the audio wave. The […]

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ETHICS OF PHOTO JOURNALISM

Readers often perceive certain photographs as morally “good or bad” as shocking^ distasteful, or unnecessary intrusions into private lives. They often criticise photo journalists for shooting tragic or shocking pictures. The history of photo journalism is filled with examples of photographs of sensational subjects, violent scenes or suffering. The photo journalists who shot these scenes acted instinctively on the obligation to report to public. Other photo journalists, who may have hesitated or backed away because of interference by others, or even owing to their own sensibilities, were simply not doing their job. The fact that photographs can often be shocking is part of the burden of being a photo journalist. there are sime ethus of photo journalism which govern the conduct of photo jot. Midlists and a/so that of editors who decide finally about the fate of a picture i.e. to le published or discarded. In the Pakistani context, the […]

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ROLE AND SCOPE OF PHOTO JOURNALISM

For the combination of pictures with written information has been coined a new term “Photo journalism”. Today newspapers are as dependent on photographs as they are on news stories, features, columns, interviews and editorials, etc. Photograph not only supplement text, but also enhance and extend it by highlighting and pressing upon the readers important points and make it easier for the reader to build up a picture of what he or she is reading about. Another important function of pictures in newspaper is to attract readers attention towards a particular information for achieving a special effect. During the 1920 when pictures became part and parcel of newspapers and magazines, experiments were carried out on transmission of photographic image by wire According to Warran’ Phillip and Edwin (1985), the first photos sent by wire were transmitted from the Associated Press which had established its wire photo network on January 1, 1935 […]

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PROOF READING

PROOF READING Various channels pout hundreds of thousands of words into newsroom daily. Sub-editors select important news and articles amongst them. After necessary editing they are sent to the composing section. The composed matter has to undergo another crucial and important stage i.e. proof-reading whereby not only the errors made by the composing machine operator or printer are removed but a/so the errors that might have escaped the news desk are corrected Chambers English dictionary has defined proof-reading as an impression taken on a slip of a paper for correction before printing finally. While the impression itself is called the proof. The person who marks the errors is called proof-reader Proof reader checks proofs against the typescript. Proof reading can be organised in various ways: a copy holder may read the typescript mentioning punctuation, capital letters, italics, etc to the proof-reader who is checking the proof; the proof-reader may himself […]

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CAPTION

Caption is used as a synonym for cutline or underline. It constitutes wording, accompanying and describing finer details of a photograph or illustration, usually beneath or beside it. A good caption can add life to a fairly mundane picture while a bad caption can spoil a good picture. The identification is permanent in a caption, time and location are not always necessary. There are do’s and don’ts about caption writing. Some of them are given below: Use the picture as intro. Complement the picture Reflect the mood Try to create interest which may not be obvious at a glance Use present tense to describe an action in the picture. Use your imagination and lead the reader through a thought process. Don’t simply describe the picture. Don’t state the obvious. Don’t assume the reader knows a face. Kinds of Captions : Formal Informal 1. Formal In formal captions the five Ws […]

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DEFINITION OF EDITORIAL

DEFINITION OF EDITORIAL An editorial is a journalistic essay which either attempts (1) to inform or explain, (2) to persuade or convince, or (3) to stimulate insight on an entertaining or humorous manner. As an essay the editorial may be having an introduction, a body, and a conclusion. In terms of various forms of composition, it may employ exposition, narration, description, or argumentation. Many of the definitions examined below have many characteristics attributed to essays. Generally speaking, an editorial is an expression of opinion based upon a selection of facts which present a truth in a new light-something that everyone knows which no one before ever thought of (William Allen White). An editorial may also be defined as a presentation of facts and opinion in concise, logical, pleasing order for the sake of entertaining, of influencing opinion, or of interpreting significant news in such a way that its importance to […]

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Techniques of Interviewing

Techniques of Interviewing: The following basic guidelines could prove helpful in almost all interview situations: a.   Introduce yourself clearly and accurately. b.    Be sure to get the person’s name and title. c.    Be friendly, sympathetic and courteous. d.    Begin the interview with light and interesting question. e.   Avoid yes-no questions. f.     Ask open questions. g.   Don’t be afraid to deviate from the list of prepared questions if you open a new and interesting line of discussion. h.   Avoid ambiguous questions. i.     Do not bury your head in your notes.                                    • j.        10 Also use a tape recorder while taking notes. k.       ! I Keep the interviewee going smoothly but don’t allow him/her to take total control of the situation or to misguide you. l.     Never agree to ask only set questions. m.  Make sure you understand what the interviews have said. n.      Don’t stop probing until complicated points are explained […]

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