Describe Development Support Communication & Explains the steps of Development Support Communication Campaign

How would you describe DSC campaign? Also explain the steps involved in a DSC campaign.

Effective public relations require a knowledge, based on analysis and understanding, of all the factors that influence public attitudes toward the organization. While a specific public relations project or campaign may be undertaken proactively or reactively (to manage some sort of image crisis), the first basic step in either case involves analysis and research to identify all the relevant factors of the situation. In this first step, the organization gains an understanding of its various constituencies and the key factors that are influencing their perceptions of the organization.

In the second step, the organization establishes an overall policy with respect to the campaign. This involves defining goals and desired outcomes, as well as the constraints under which the campaign will operate. It is necessary to establish such policy guidelines in order to evaluate proposed strategies and tactics as well as the overall success of the campaign.

In step three, the organization outlines its strategies and tactics. Using its knowledge of the target audiences and its own established policies, the organization develops specific programs to achieve the desired objectives. Finally, step four involves actual communication with the targeted public. The organization then employs specific public relations techniques, such as press conferences or special events, to reach the intended audience.

In step five the organization receives feedback from its public. How have they reacted to the public relations campaign? Are there some unexpected developments? In the final step, the organization assesses the program and makes any necessary adjustments.

Once the advertising campaign is over, companies normally evaluate it compared to the established goals. An effective tactic in measuring the usefulness of the advertising campaign is to measure the pre-and post-sales of the company’s product. In order to make this more effective, some companies divide up the country into regions and run the advertising campaigns only in some areas. The different geographic areas are then compared (advertising versus non-advertising), and a detailed analysis is performed to provide an evaluation of the campaign’s effectiveness. Depending on the results, a company will modify future advertising efforts in order to maximize effectiveness.

The critical part of making an advertising campaign is determining a campaign theme, as it sets the tone for the individual advertisements and other forms of marketing communications that will be used. The campaign theme is the central message that will be communicated in the promotional activities. The campaign themes are usually developed with the intention of being used for a substantial period but many of them are short lived due to factors such as being ineffective or market conditions and/or competition in the marketplace.

Frequency refers to the average number of times that an average consumer is exposed to the advertising campaign. A company usually establishes frequency goals, which can vary for each advertising campaign. For example, a company might want to have the average consumer exposed to the message at least six times during the advertising campaign. This number might seem high, but in a crowded and competitive market repetition is one of the best methods to increase the product’s visibility and to increase company sales. The more exposure a company desires for its product, the more expensive the advertising campaign. Thus, often only large companies can afford to have high-frequency advertisements during a campaign.

Another major consideration for any company engaging in an advertising campaign is when to run the advertisements. For example, some companies run ads during the holidays to promote season-specific products. The other major consideration for a company is whether it wants to employ a continuous or pulsing pattern of advertisements. Continuous refers to advertisements that are run on a scheduled basis for a given time period. The advantage of this tactic is that an advertising campaign can run longer and might provide more exposure over time. For example, a company could run an advertising campaign for a particular product that lasts years with the hope of keeping the product in the minds

of customers. Pulsing indicates that advertisements will be scheduled in a disproportionate manner within a given time frame.

Once the advertising campaign is over, companies normally evaluate it compared to the established goals. An effective tactic in measuring the usefulness of the advertising campaign is to measure the pre-and post-sales of the company’s product. In order to make this more effective, some companies divide up the country into regions and run the advertising campaigns only in some areas. The different geographic areas are then compared (advertising versus non-advertising), and a detailed analysis is performed to provide an evaluation of the campaign’s effectiveness. Depending on the results, a company will modify future advertising efforts in order to maximize effectiveness.

The critical part of making an advertising campaign is determining a campaign theme, as it sets the tone for the individual advertisements and other forms of marketing communications that will be used. The campaign theme is the central message that will be communicated in the promotional activities. The campaign themes are usually developed with the intention of being used for a substantial period but many of them are short lived due to factors such as being ineffective or market conditions and/or competition in the marketplace.

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Advertising Agencies in Pakistan

Advertising Agencies in Pakistan

In 1947, the advertising industry was in a very miserable condition in Pakistan. Calcutta, Bombay, Madras and Delhi were centres of advertising in the sub-continent, but all these cities became part of India.

Before independence British and American advertising agencies had hold over the business. Malani and Co. was one of these advertising agencies working in Pakistan but the owner of this agency was also a Hindu. The first advertising agency in Pakistan was Wilintas International Karachi. After some time a number of international advertising agencies opened their offices in different cities of Pakistan. These agencies promoted the business of their international clients in Pakistan. The international advertising agencies dominated the local agencies because the local advertising agencies were suffering prior shortage of resources and well skilled staff was not available to them.

The position of helping departments of advertising was also very miserable at the time of independence. At that time industrial production was almost mil. Therefore there were no advertisers. Advertising depends on media but the media was very limited at that time. There was no TV centre. Only two radio stations were working. A few newspapers and magazines were being printed but their circulation was very little. The advertising rates were too little. There were about 400 cinema halls in both parts of Pakistan and these cinema halls were also the media of advertising.


After 1950, many new advertising agencies came into existence. A few of these




D.J. Camer




J. Walter Thompson


National Advertising


Grant Advertising


Orient Advertising




M. N.J. Communication


In 1955, a number of international advertising agencies closed down their business


due to governmental policies. This was a point of benefit for local advertising agencies. These agencies have well established with the passage of time and now these are recognized throughout the world. There is also an association of all the advertising agencies of the country which is called Pakistan Advertising Association (PAA). In September 1979, first advertising congress was held in Karachi. The representatives of almost all the advertising agencies participated in it. The data presented in this congress was a follows:

“There are about 60 accredited advertising companies in the country, 45 in Karachi and the rest in Lahore, Islamabad, Peshawar and Quetta. The estimated total size of advertising turnover in the country is about Rs.20 crore. Total number of personnel directly working within advertising companies does not exceed 1000 people”.

Now the total number of advertising agencies working in Pakistan is about one hundred. Almost every advertising agency has its branch offices in all the big cities of the country. The quantity as well as quality of the work of advertising agencies is being enhanced. The industry and business is also developing. Therefore we can say that future of the advertising agencies in Pakistan is bright. But the agencies should be prepared to face the challenges of the every day changing world. The executives of the agencies should be aware of the new trends and developments which are taking place in advertising business throughout the world.

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Ten-Point Planning Model for a Public Relations Campaign

Ten-Point Planning Model for a PR Campaign:

Scarcity of the resources often forces us to resort to constraints. Therefore, ptudence demands that we plan our expenditure, make a judicious use of the available resources and try to obtain the best possible results at the minimum possible cost. The generally accepted PR planning model encompasses:

Ten-Point Planning Model for a PR Campaign
  1. Assessment of the situation
  2. Isolation of the problem
  3. Establishing policies
  4. Extending in-depth research
  5. Determining objectives
  6. Defining publics
  7. Development of a plan/selection of media and the techniques
  8. Planning of a budget
  9. Execution of the Plan
  10. Assessing results

1.Assessment of the Situation

Before chalking out/formulating a PR programme, it is necessary to be clear about its starting point as without having a clear perception about the public esteem or the current “image” of an organization, it would not be possible for any PR practitioners to chalk out an appropriate programme and/or recommend measures/considered necessary for improving the public image/rating of his/her client.

The current image of any subject can be found out by collecting necessary relevant data. This can be-done through five questions, four starting with “WM and one with “H”J (However, the questions asked by PR experts are different from the six generally put by] the journalists to make their stories/despatches about various events/happenings more comprehensive.) These questions arc: What image do the “publics” have of the concern^ organization,(i.e. subject) for which it is proposed to chalk out a PR programme? In otWil words, where docs it stand in the public esteem at that time? What do people know or nod know about it? What are their areas of misunderstanding—hostility, prejudice, apathy and ignorance etc, if any? What are the causes for the negative attitudes about the concern (subject) and finally, how these can be converted into positive ones?

Importance of Primary Research

Primary research is essential for making an assessment about the corporate image or goodwill that an organization enjoys amongst its “Publics”. Although research involved expenditure, but it is an investment — rather insurance — in success. However, effort^ should be made to keep the expenditure on research on a modest side and it should not b^ in any case, very high.

The research method most frequently used for PR purposes is the opinion pol where a sample of people, i.e. representatives of the particular “public” are interviewed and their attitudes are studied from the responses furnished by them. From the information data thus collected percentages are worked out of the people of different kinds holding certain views. The sample can be made up of men, women, married, single, in different age groups or social strata.

The result of the first survey would give an assessment of the corporate image of the organization prior to the launching of a PR programme. As the programme proceeds and progresses, similar surveys can be carried out at suitable intervals, say after every six months or so, to monitor changes in the opinions/attitudes of the people. However, the people questioned-should be relevant. For example, the respondents for a fertilizer or insecticide company should be the tillers/farmers or the dealers/stockists, while for baby food these could be mothers or would be mothers, doctors, nurses etc. Other Methods In addition to the opinion polls, other methods of assessing/appreciating the situation may include:

  1. a.           Press cutting, broadcasts or telecasts, monitoring reports.
  2. b.          sales figure trends;
  3. c.           state of competition and effects of imports;
  4. d.          share price, stock market opinion, dividends and balance sheet;
  5. e.           industrial relations situation;
  6. f.            customer complaints;
  7. g.           effects of price changes;
  8. h.          economic/political situation and
  9. i.             attitudes of opinion leaders.

2.Isolation of the Problem

The exact problem, its nature and extent and also main reasons for the existence of the problem can be determined with the help of the information/data collected through sample surveys or from studies and analysis carried out with the help of the indicators given above. Generally, four negative attitudes of the “Publics” towards the organization may emerge. These may be hostility, prejudice, apathy and ignorance.

Negative situation                          Positive situation

Hostility   Sympathy
Prejudice ———  > Acceptance
Appathy -——– > Interest
Ignorance   Knowledge

PR is not necessarily about trying to make others believe that we are the best. Creation of tolerance may be one of the PR objectives, but it is difficult to make people tolerate something which are not properly understood, in particular in race matters. Knowledge creates understanding and the principal objective of PR is creating understanding.

The primary aim of a PR programme should be to convert the negative attitudes, if any, into positive attributes — hostility into sympathy, prejudice into acceptance, apathy into interest and ignorance into knowledge. But before making an attempt for bringing about a desired change in the attitudes of the people, one should try to find out the exact nature/degree/magnitude of the negative attitudes, if any, existing about a subject.

3.Establishing Policies

After determining the problem, its nature/extent, reasons/causes etc, policy guidelines or strategy for bringing a positive change in the attitudes of the “public” through PR efforts can be formulated. The PR policy or strategy should then be got approved from the management of the organization concerned, i.e. the subject.

4.Indepth Research

We should then carry out research aimed at finding out complete information about the “public” in question, in particular their educational level, habits, religious attitudes/ beliefs, hobbies, peer groups etc., and also the type of media popular among them. The pattern that emerges from the study/research will help us in determining appropriate communication techniques and media strategy for disseminating messages to the target groups, keeping in view their general traits and habbits.

5.Determining Objectives

PR practitioners should then make a list of objectives after holding discussions with the senior executives of the organization/subject. Some of these objectives can be achieved within a short span of time while others may require a sustained effort over along period. Further, it may not require much effort and expenditure to achieve some objectives, but there may be some that may require huge investments or expenditure. Therefore, the need for fixing priorities for realizing various objectives within the budgetary allocations. Some possible objectives for a business for a business concern may include:

  • To establish a new corporate image because the company has broadened its operations. For instance, a company making corn flakes, now produces fertilizers, cement, sugar, cloth etc. To attract the best talent for jobs.
  • To gain credit for the achievements or discoveries or any other pioneering work.
  • To introduce the company in new markets.
  • To create climate conducive for g new floatation of shares.
  • To improve community relations.
  • To educate users/consumers about some new product.
  • To regain public confidence
  • To project Chairman’s participation in social activities.
  • To. sponsor educational, literary or philanthropic activities.
  • To create a better understanding among the politicians about the activities of the


6.Defining Publics

Every organization has its own “publics”. These are people or a particular section of the people who benefit, directly or indirectly, from the services offered by the concern or who contribute, in one way or the other, in promoting the sales of the organization or are its patrons/promoters. In other words, publics are those groups of people, internal or external, with whome an organization communicates. Although the publics of one organization may differ from those of another, eight basic publics are common to most of the commercial organizations. These are:

  • The community. This may be different from organization to organization, depending upon its communication needs and requirements.
  • Potential Employees. These may exist in the institutions of learning or other organizations.
  • Employees. These can be of many kinds representing different salary, social or ethnic groups.
  •     Suppliers. These include both suppliers of utilities (i.e. water, energy etc.) and materials/professional services.
  • Investors. These include share-holders and institutional buyers of stocks.
  • Distributors. These include persons/firms who handle goods between the producers and the consumers.
  • Consumers/users. These include the persons or group of persons who actually buy/ use the products/services.
    • Leaders of Opinion. These include persons whose opinions can help or harm an organization.

7.Development of Plan

Development of a plan of action and the selection of the PR media/techniques should be done with extreme care. The only criterion for their selection should be their ability to give the best possible results in a given situation.

Readership figures in case of the print media and the audience rating in case of the electronic media should be kept in view while developing a plan or selecting a medium. Readership figures can be more helpful than circulation figures because some newspapers, in particular those specializing in economic and financial matters, have a small circulation as compared to popular newspapers, but a large number of readers per copy. Further, the type of persons who read financial newspapers is different from those who read general run of the mill popular newspapers. This equally applies to the programmes on the electronic media. Hence the value/quality of coverage does not depend upon the number of column centimeters (space) but the relevance of readership. For a financial/commercial stock market story, (press release 1) the financial newspapers could be given a greater rating/value than general newspapers. However, it would be quite reverse for a story (press release 2) on household products or consumer goods as illustrated in the chart.’ Hence selection of the media should be > primarily based on value judgement and the technique keeping in view the significance ofjthe event, the timings, the budgetary allocations and the popularity of the newspaper concerned amongst the given “public”.

8.Planning Budget

The budget sets a discipline for expenditure and it depends upon the activities or the size of an organization. Budgeting is imperative for the following reasons:

To estimate the expenditure for carrying out a PR programme.

Alternatively, to learn what sort of programme can be carried out within the allocations.            To measure results after the completion of a campaign.

PR is a labour intensive task, involving research, planning, determination of goals/ objectives, formulation of policies and their execution, selection of the media and the techniques and assessing results. Therefore, the biggest single cost that the PR exercises usually involve is the working hours. Other major costs include machines/equipments, making of films, audio-tapes, video-cassettes, printing of information material or production of house journals. As the films/tapes or information material, when produced, will be utilized over a considerable period, it is therefore advisable to spread their cost over a number of years. However, as a policy the PR budget should be modest and it should be allocated to the various media keeping in view the value and the results likely to be achieved. Further, the entire budget should not be allocated to an single medium; it should’ rather be spent on various media because the experience shows that a multi-pronged strategy can always yield better results.

9.Execution of the Plan

The plan should, in the first place, be launched on a pilot basis in one area/sector/ town and then its results should be assessed. The shortcomings that come to light during the execution of the plan in the pilot area should be removed, modifing/improving the original plan before its execution on a country-wide or international basis. Experience has shown that most of the successful organizations are masters of PR, their leaders or officials being good communicators. In fact, to be successful PR should start at the top and the chief executive should be in effect the principal public relations officer of the organization.

10.Assessment of Results

The research techniques indicated in the beginning of this chapter, under the heading “Logical Planning” for finding out the image of an organization before launching any PR campaign can be repeated to assess or evaluate the results, a good example being that of the opinion poll or attitude test; The methods of evaluating results are generally decided at the planning stage.

As the PR campaigns set out objectives, the results can be assessed against these pre­determined targets. (A list of possible objectives is given under the heading “Determining Objectives”). The results are often self-evident and do not require special research. One can easily assess whether the organization now enjoys better community relations, if its public image has increased, if it succeeded in attracting the public to subscribe to its new shares, if the sales staff was welcomed when it approached with a new product and so on.




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Analyze The Various Steps Involved in An Advertising Campaign

Analyze the various steps involved in an advertising campaign


According to Wright et al. [18], there are seven basic and essential steps in planning:

1 . Approaching the Advertising Opportunity

This appraisal involves the determination of the right timing; for a particular advertising campaign. Neil Borden [19] and Charles H. Patti [20] have identified five situations which could lend themselves to advertising opportunities:

Presence of a favourable primary demand trend: If a product category is becoming favourite with        consumers, then it is beneficial to advertise a particular brand of product in that category. For example, if coffee drinking is on the increase then a particular brand of coffee can take advantage of it Similarly, if the trend is towards small compact cars, then it is difficult to sell big gas- guzzling cars.

Good chance for product differentiation: If the product that is the focus of the advertising campaign, can be differentiated by unique or exclusive qualities, then it .provides an advertising opportunity. For example, it is difficult to differentiate simply salt or sugar, because sugar will remain sugar no matter which company produces it, but a toothpaste can be differentiated by its quality to clean and brighten teeth as well as serve as a mouthwash.

Presence of hidden qualities: Less obvious qualities are more favourable to promotion. For example, the quality of a television set cannot be determined by simply looking at it. The reliability of the parts within the set are very important for the consumers to associate their buying with that particular brand. Hence the theme of Zenith TV company is “The quality goes in before the names goes on”, Sony Corporation products are well known for their reliability.

Presence of powerful emotional buying motives: If a promotional appeal can touch the emotions as against potentiality or economic Utility, it will be successful. Cosmetics are generally promoted on the basis of sex appeal. Some types of bread and cereals are promoted as necessary for healthier children.

Availability of advertising funds: An advertising opportunity cannot be advertised unless there are adequate funds available for such an advertising campaign. Some minimal amount of advertising must be done if sufficient impact on the target market is to be achieved. Little advertising may be more dangerous than no advertising at all.

2- Market Analysis

Before an advertising campaign can be initiated, it is necessary to know the target market in depth and in detail. Such factors as the entire industry, volume of a given product, its on- market share, competitive strategies, any legal constraints etc. must be studied and analysed. Similarly, the demographic structure of the market and. the market trends must be studied. This would assist in pin-pointing the segmented target market so that advertising efforts can be focussed on this market.

3-Advertising Objectives

The advertising objectives should be as specific as possible. For example, one single point increase in market share is not as specific as the desired percentage of increase in market share. These advertising objectives- must be differentiated from the overall marketing objectives.

4-Establishing Advertising Budgets

As discussed earlier, an advertising budget is determined either by the build-up method or by the break-down method and, appropriate allocation for different media from the budget is established. This break up of allocation would also include consideration of different products, different geographic markets, different time periods etc. Proper monitoring of this budge.t is equally important. Some contingency fund should be apportioned in case any situational changes take place.

5-Developing a Promotional Strategy

Strategies are developed in order to achieve the advertising and marketing objectives. Strategy involves selecting the most suitable media as the vehicle of promotion as well creating an advertising message that would be attention getting. Advertising strategy has been defined as follows:

“Advertising strategy is creativity applied in knowledge for the purpose of finding the most effective way of achieving an end. We believe that advertising strategy must encompass the totality of what a product or service is and how it is sold to the consumer. It embodies the product’s or service’s reason for being so. It is the product’s most important property and it is the differentiating principle that the product embraces. Strategy welds all of the marketing factors into a cohesive unity that will achieve the end” [21].

6-Coordinating Advertising and Other Marketing Techniques

Advertising campaigns need the active support of other marketing functions such as distribution channels, sales promotion and public relations. Other functions like production, inventory and delivery should also be integrated with advertising plans. In addition, maximum support should be solicited from dealers, suppliers and sales people.

7-Results of Advertising Campaigns

The degree of correlation between any increase in sales and :he advertising campaign should be established so as to determine he proportion of increase in sales that are directly attributable to he advertising campaign. Similarly, if the objectives are other than an increase in sales, then the degree of achievement of such objectives should be measured relative to. the advertising efforts. There are a number of ways by which such results can be measured. One of these methods would be to test the market, which is carefully chosen, at the time of introduction of the advertising campaign (known as pre-testing) and then testing the market again after the full commitment of the campaign (known as post-testing). In the pre-testing stage, the response in the test market is analysed to determine if any changes in the advertising campaign are necessary. The pre-testing and post-testing would give us a clear indication as to the efficiency of the advertising effort.

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Techniques for Measuring the Effects of Advertising Campaign

Discuss the various strategies and techniques for measuring advertising campaign.

Techniques for Measuring the Effects of Advertising Campaign:

There are many advertising campaign effectiveness measurement techniques in use. These techniques are divided into classes and then evaluated or measured.

Classes of Measurement Techniques

Advertising campaign effectiveness measurement techniques can be classified as measuring cognitive response, effective response and conative response. A cognitive response measurement technique evaluates changes in subject’s knowledge; an effective response measurement technique measures dhanges in consumer’s attitudes towards a product; and a conative response measurement determines the action that consumers take towards a product.

Approach to Examining Measurement

In selecting each measurement technique, two related questions or approaches must be considered.

Does the measurement technique meet the criteria for measurement techniques i.e., is the technique accurate and valid?

The advertiser must select a measurement technique that measures the particular element to be evaluated.

The analysis of measurement techniques which- follows is designed to help in answering these questions.


Cognitive (Knowledge) Test

The responses measured by cognitive tests are the earliest stages of the hierarchy of effects. Some of these tests measure changes in the first or awareness stage by • determining how many people were exposed to the advertising campaign’s elements being tested e.g. media audience measures or physiological measurement.

Media Audience Measurement

Media audience measurement serves as an important technique for evaluating or measuring effectiveness of a media programme for an advertising campaign. The technique used to measure the audience of media vehicle varies from medium to medium. Therefore certain steps must be included in media audience measurement which are:

1. Design of measurement

2. Uses of audience measurement

3. Evaluation of audience measurement.

  1. Sampling error
  2. Distortion of estimates.

Physiological Measurement

A variety of laboratory measurement devices that record physical response to stimuli have been applied as advertising campaign measures. These tests are most often used to evaluate creative elements of an advertising campaign. The physiological measurement consists of the following steps:

  1. Design of the measurement
  2. Use of physiological measurement
  3. Evaluation of physiological measurement.

Affective (Attitude) Tests

Affective tests move to the liking and preference stages in the hierarchy. The responses measured are consumer’s attitudes towards companies products, and advertisements of advertising campaign.

The rationale behind these tests is that a favourable change in attitude towards a product means that a person will be more likely to buy that product. The affective tests are completed through the following steps:

Opinion Measurements

  1. Design of opinion measurements.

Consumer juries

Headline testing

  1. Evaluation of opinion measurements.

Attitude Measurements

  1. Design of attitude measurements
  2. Uses of attitude measurements
  3. Evaluation of attitude measurements.

Conative (Motive) Tests:                 i

Conative tests move one stage further along the hierarchy of effects arid measure the action that people take as a result of advertising campaign. Sometimes the action measured is actual purchase of the product, and sometimes the measurement is of some action prior to purchase or some action that is thought to stimulate purchase. The conative tests include different steps which are: 1. Inquiry Measurements –

  1. Design of inquiry tests
  2. Evaluation of inquiry tests
  3. Split-rum tests
  4. Theatre tests
  5. Split cable tests

Sales Analysis Measurements

Since the ultimate effects desired from an advertising campaign are purchase, sales, resold etc., hence if they can be related to advertising effort, it represents the most valuable measure at advertising campaign effectiveness. Sales analysis measurements are completed by the following steps.

Design of the sales measurement approach

Measuring consumer sales.

Evaluation of consumer sales measures.

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