Basic Concepts in Social Sciences -1 CODE: 5637

ALLAMAIQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY Level: PGD/M.Sc Mass Communication                                                                      Semester: Spring, 2012 Paper: Basic Concepts in Social Sciences -1 (5637)                                                   Time Allowed: 03 hours Maximum Marks: 100                                                                                                       Pass Marks: 40 Note: ATTEMPT ANY FIVE QUESTIONS. ALL CARRY EQUAL MARKS. Q. No.                    Questions What do you know about sociology? Describe its characteristics and also explain how can we term sociology as a science? Explain the various aspects of culture. How is it different from society? Discuss significance of culture? What is meant by an institution in sociology? What are the basic institutions in • complex societies? What is inflation? What factors cause inflation and how is it controlled? Explain the monetary system by describing bi-metabolism system of note issue and value of money. Define the concept of stock market with special reference to Pakistan. Explain the main features of our economy. What are the obstacles to our economic growth? What […]

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Obstacles to Economic Development in Pakistan

Obstacles to Economic Development in Pakistan

Point out various obstacles to economic development of Pakistan and also narrate the current status of Pakistan’s economy. Obstacles to Economic Development in Pakistan Anything that makes slow the process of economic development is called obstacles to its functioning. The various obstacles to the Economic development 0″ Pakistan may be categorized as economic, social, cultural, administrative and political. Economic Obstacles Inadequacy of natural resources Natural resources are comprised of geographical configuration, soil, climate water resources, minerals etc. No country in the world is self-sufficient in this respect but fair degree of resources is needed for economic growth. In this respect, the position of Pakistan is not so discouraging but the overa’. position of Pakistan ..in this respect is not so rich. There are problems of salinity, water logging, floods, droughts, lack of forests, oil and gas, iror. gypsum, coal, copper, water, etc. Under-developed human resources. The labour force in developing […]

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Concept of Stock Market

concept of Stock Market

Discuss the concept of Stock Market with special reference to Pakistan. Definitions A stock exchange is an organized market place in which securities such as bonds and common and preferred stocks are bought and sold. The origins of today’s stock exchanges unusually were informal gatherings of merchants and others who traded securities. The Stock Exchange for Stock Market is the market place of join stock companies, where stock certificates of big business enterprises, debentures, government bonds and bills of exchange are bought and sold. Those who have surplus cash with them and are interested to earn interest or profit without doing business by themselves purchase shares or bonds etc. at the stock exchange. In case they fall in need of money they sell these financial assets at the stock exchange. Role and Performance of Stock Exchange Money invested in stock exchange plays the double role for investment. On one hand, […]

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What is inflation?how it can be controlled?

inflation

What is inflation? Describe its root causes. Also explain how it can be controlled? Inflation: Inflation means generally rising money prices of goods and services. To understand what inflation is and is not, consider the above definition in detail: Goods and services: This refers not to stocks or bonds of other financial assets, but to the tangible and intangible commodities economic agents produce and sell to one another. These are commodities to be consumed or held for future use; e.g. food, haircuts, shelter, houses, health care, schooling, cars, tractors, machine tools. Money prices: This refers to amounts of money, dollars and cents in the United States, per commodity unit, e.g., per pound of butter, gallon of gasoline, haircut, bus trip, kilowatt hours, or diesel engine. In contrast, imagine the barter prices at which one commodity trades for another; e.g., 3 gallons of a gas for 1 hour of labour, two […]

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Industrialism and Modernization

Industrialism and Modernization

Define modernization. Explain social effects of modernization with relevant examples. Also explain different types of authority.               Industrialism and Modernization: Modernization is the process of economic and social change that is brought about by the introduction of the industrial mode of production into a society. The Process of Modernization: Only a few centuries ago, population consisted of a large, number of localized and isolated societies whose members lived on hunting, gathering, horticulture, or agriculture. The industrial revolution introduced an entirely new types of society, one that produced tremendous wealth. But, it also destroyed traditional forms of social organizations and created new ones in their place. This process of change in the early industrial societies of Europe was spread over several generations, and culture and social organizations were able to adapt to these changing conditions, but, in the less developed part of the world, change has come more rapidly and with more […]

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The Concept of Social Institution

The Concept of Social Institution

What is meant by social institution? Elaborate the multidimensional functions and characteristics of family?   The Concept of Social Institution In every society there are certain basic social needs, it is a must for the society to meet these needs for the survival and satisfaction of its members. In each society, therefore, people create social institutions to meet these needs. What is an institution? The sociological concept of the term is different from its common usage. An institution is not a building; it is not a group of people; it is not an organization; An institution is a system of norms to achieve some goal or activity that people feel is important, or more formally, an organized cluster of folkways and mores centered around a major human activity. Institution are structured processes through which people carry on their activities. Institutions do not have members; they have followers. This is a […]

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Norms, Folkways, Values and Groups

Explain the following terms with your own examples.                             a)    Norms            b)    Folkways         c)    Values             d)    Groups   a)      Norms: Social norms are described by sociologists as being laws that govern society’s behaviors . Although these norms are not considered to be formal laws within society, they still work to promote a great deal of social control. Social norms can be enforced formally (e.g., through sanctions) or informally (e.g., through body language and non-verbal communication cues.) If people do not follow these norms then they become labeled as deviants and this can lead to them being considered the outcast of society. What is considered “normal” is relative to the location of the culture in which the social interaction is taking place. Norms in every culture create conformity that allows for people to become socialized to the culture in which they live. Sociology’s theorists such as Talcott Parsons and Karl […]

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