What is The Cultural Base?

The Cultural Base

The Cultural Base

By the culture base, we-mean the accumulation of knowledge and technique available to the inventor in a society. As the culture base grows, an increasing number of inventions and discoveries become possible. The invention of the geared wheel provided a component which has been used in countless inventions. The discovery of electromagnetic and the invention of the vacuum tube, the transistor, and the microchip provided necessary components for hundreds of more recent inventions. Unless the Cultural base provides enough earlier inventions and discoveries, fresh inventions cannot be completed. The recent “knowledge explosion” is often cited as the source of modern innovation. This is another way of saying that the cultural base is rapidly growing and is accessible to a growing number of our people. When all the supporting knowledge has been developed, the appearance of an invention or discovery becomes almost a certainty; In fact, it is quite common for an invention or discovery to be made independently .by several persons at about the same time. When the cultural base provides all the supporting items of knowledge, it is very probable that one or more imaginative persons will put these items together for a new invention or discovery.

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Paper: Basic Concepts in Social Sciences – II Code 5638



Level: PGD/M.Sc Mass Communication

Paper: Basic Concepts in Social Sciences – II (5638)

Semester: Spring, 2012

Maximum Marks: 100                              Pass Marks: 40

Time Allowed: 03 hours


1.Define social psychology. Discuss symbolic-interaction theory.

2.What does socialization mean? Briefly explain the theories of socialization.

3.What is conformity? What are the various types of conformity?

4.Discuss the characteristics of source, message and audience in the process of attitude change.

5.Explain the concept of “sovereignty” in Islamie perspectives.

6.Discuss the functions and powers of judiciary in a modern democratic state.

7.Write short notes on the following:

i)Pressure group

ii)Advantages of two party system


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Basic Concepts in Social Sciences -1 CODE: 5637


Level: PGD/M.Sc Mass Communication                                                                      Semester: Spring, 2012

Paper: Basic Concepts in Social Sciences -1 (5637)                                                   Time Allowed: 03 hours

Maximum Marks: 100                                                                                                       Pass Marks: 40


Q. No.                    Questions

What do you know about sociology? Describe its characteristics and also explain how can we term sociology as a science?

Explain the various aspects of culture. How is it different from society? Discuss significance of culture?

What is meant by an institution in sociology? What are the basic institutions in • complex societies?

What is inflation? What factors cause inflation and how is it controlled?

Explain the monetary system by describing bi-metabolism system of note issue and value of money.

Define the concept of stock market with special reference to Pakistan.

Explain the main features of our economy. What are the obstacles to our economic growth?

What is meant by balance of payments and balance of trade? Also write short notes on the role of international monetary fund and World Bank.

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