Gate Keeping The term gatekeeping was originally used by Kwrt Lewin in his Human Relations (1947) to refer to (1) theprocess by which a message passes through various gates as well as (2) thepeople or groups who allow the message to pass (gatekeepers), may be individualsor a group of persons through whom a message passes from sender to receivers. A camera-person is a vivid example of a gatekeeper, who selects certain area for photographing which are then shown to the viewers. Editors of newspapers,magazines and publishing houses are also gatekeepers as. they allow certain information to get through and filter other information. The selection and rejection ofmaterial is made according to a set of criteria determined by a number of factors such as the gatekeepers, back-ground, education, up-bringing and attitudes to the world plus the values, norms and traditional Wisdom of the organisation for which the gatekeeper works. History and […]
Normative Theories of mass communication
Explainnormative theories of mass communication. · Professionalism, a crusade toclean up the media and make it respectable and credible, followed the era ofyellow journalism; its objective was to eliminate shoddy and irresponsiblecontent. · Media professionals and socialelites used normative theory to answer questions regarding media reform. Social responsibility is the normative theoryused in the United States. · Social responsibility theory The Origins of NormativeTheories of Media Ø Twoopposing viewpoints o Radical libertarians (FirstAmendment absolutists) & Technocratic Control § First Amendment absolutiststake the idea of “free press” as literal and oppose government regulation. § Technocrats do not trust themedia and believes in the use of regulators to act in the publicinterest. o Propaganda and mass societytheories are used to justify media regulation. Normative theory: The type of theory that describes an ideal way for media systemsto be structured and operated. Normative theories: 1. Authoritarian theory The theory that places all forms of communication under thecontrol of governing elites […]
types of communication and its effects
Elaborate with example the various types of communication and its effects in various situations. Communication Communication is a process of exchanging information, ideas, thoughts, feelings and emotions through speech, signals, writing, or behavior. In communication process, a sender(encoder) encodes a message and then using a medium/channel sends it to the receiver (decoder) who decodes the message and after processing information, sends back appropriate feedback/reply using a medium/channel. TYPES OF COMMUNICATION There are five types of communication 1. Interpersonal Communication Communication that takes place within himself or herself is called intrapersonal communication. Conversation with self and planning or thinking about the schedule of your study for an examination etc. are the examples of intrapersonal communication. 2. Interpersonal Communication It is the process in which communication takes place between two or a small group of persons. Interpersonal communication always takes place into a face to face situation and the communicator and destination […]
Explain physical and psychological hurdles of communication?
Barrier/ Hurdle: Barrier means all those hurdles which stop or interrupt the process of communication. Barrier sometimes becomes so strong that they can even make the whole process just a failure. Hurdles of Communication: Physical barrier is a problem in the way of transmitting a message from its source to destination. You sent a letter to your friend but he didn’t get it, this is a physical barrier; there is a speech of President on TV but you can’t listen it properly due to some problem in the transmission (channel noise), also a physical hurdle. If a student closes a door with noise during lecture then it would also be a physical hurdle. Transmitting a message from one person to another is a tough job because there is a possibility of misunderstanding. There is very little chance that the reader will understand exactly the same what the writer means. […]
Define communication. Elaborate different elements of communication?
Communication: The word communication has originated from a Latin word “Communes” which means something common. Therefore, when we communicate, we are indeed trying to establish commonness of thoughts or feelings with other individuals. In other words, communication is a process of sharing ideas, words and attitudes, with someone. It is a basic human need. As human being we need somebody to help us, talk to us, hear to us. One of the renowned Greek Philosopher has said that a man who says that he does not need anybody is either god or a beast. The phenomenon of communication is the natural desire of human being to express his/her feelings and ideas to others. The basic purpose of communication is to bring changes in the behaviour of the receiver. The basic purpose of communication is to inform, educate and entertain people. Different scholars have defined communication differently. However, some of the […]
Msc. Mass Comm First Semester Workshop Ceremony 2011
A ceremony was held on 4th November 2011 on end of First Semester Workshops of MSc. Mass Communication in Arts Council Hall Gujranwala. A ceremony was held on 4th November 2011 on end of First Semester Workshops of MSc. Mass Communication in Arts Council Hall Gujranwala.
Visual Editing: Principles and Techniques
Visual Editing: Principles and Techniques Videotape cassettes are factory sealed. The tape is never touched by human hands, nor should it be. A smudge of dirt or even the skin’s natural oils can damage not only the tape but also the recording and playback circuitry through which it passes. All editing is done electronically. The film is edited manually. The way tape works is this: sound and picture are encoded in magnetic particles on the tape’s surface by the record circuitry. Editing and Playback circuitry read this code to reconstitute the images and sounds. The sound and picture are on separate tracks, enabling tape editors to rearrange them independently of one another. « Tape gear is constantly being improved, being made lighter, more light- sensitive, more shockproof, more weather resistant and more flexible. However, the basic components remain the same and TV journalists must be familiar with them in order […]