THE ROLE OF MEDIA IN THE SOCIAL WORLDNCE THEORIES

THE ROLE OF MEDIA IN THE SOCIAL WORLDNCE THEORIES

Chapter#10: AUDIEMEDIA AND SOCIETY: THE ROLE OF MEDIA IN THE SOCIAL WORLDNCE THEORIES: USES, RECEPTION, AND EFFECTS Information (Innovation) Diffusion Theory In 1962, Everett Rogers information/ innovation diffusion theory Theory that explains how innovations are introduced and adopted by various communities Meta Analysis Identifies important consistencies in previous research findings on a specific issue and systematically integrate them into a fuller understanding Early Adopters In information/ innovation diffusion theory, people who adopt an innovation early, even before receiving significant amounts of information Change agents In information/ innovation diffusion theory, those who directly influence early adopters and opinion leaders Strengths Weakness 1. Integrates large amount of empirical findings into useful theory 2. Provides practical guide for information campaigns in United States and abroad 1. Is linear and source-dominated 2. Underestimates power of media, especially  contemporary media 3. Stimulates adoption by groups that don’t understand or want the innovation Social Marketing Theory […]

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THE EMERGENCE OF CRITICAL AND CULTURAL THEORIES

Chapter#8: THE EMERGENCE OF CRITICAL AND CULTURAL THEORIES OF MASS COMMUNICATION

Chapter#8: THE EMERGENCE OF CRITICAL AND CULTURAL THEORIES OF MASS COMMUNICATION In this chapter, we will trace the emergence of theories directly addressing questions about the way media might produce profound changes in social life through their subtle influence on the myriad of social practices that form the foundation of everyday life. These new perspectives argued that media might have the power to intrude into and alter how we make sense of ourselves and our social world. Media could alter how we view ourselves, our relationship to others, even the image that we have of our body. Culture The learned behavior of members of a given social group CHANGING TIMES Media have become a primary means by which most of us experience or learn about many aspects of the world around us. Even when we don’t learn about these things directly from media, we learn about them from other people […]

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NORMATIVE THEORIES OF MASS COMMUNICATION (Review)

Chapter#5: NORMATIVE THEORIES OF MASS COMMUNICATION During the era of yellow journalism, most media professionals cared very little for the niceties of accuracy, objectivity, and public sensitivities. But in the first decades of the twentieth century, a crusade began among some media industry people and various social elites to clean up the media and make them more respectable and credible. The watchword of this crusade was professionalism, and its goal was elimination of shoddy and irresponsible content. Some sort of theory was needed to guide this task of media reform. The goal of this theory would be to answer questions such as these: Should media do something more than merely distribute whatever content will earn them the greatest profits in the shortest time? Are there some essential public services that media should provide even if no immediate profits can be earned? Should media become involved in identifying and solving social […]

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Theory & Different Basic Mass Communication Theories

Mass Communication Theory Foundations, Ferment, and Future

Mass Communication Theory Foundations, Ferment, and Future Review of Chaper 1: DEFINING AND REDEFINING MASS COMMUNICATION When an organization (Source) employs  a technology as a medium to communicate with a large audience, mass communication is said to have occurred. SCIENCE AND HUMAN BEHAVIOR Implementation of the scientific method is difficult for those studying the social world for four reasons: Most of the significant and interesting forms of human behavior are quite difficult to measure. How do we measure something like civic duty? Should we count the incidence of voting? Maybe a person’s decision not to vote is her personal expression of that duty. Try something a little easier, like measuring aggression in a television violence study. Can aggression be measured by counting how many times a child hits a rubber doll? Is gossiping about a neighbor an aggressive act? How do we measure an attitude (a predisposition to do something […]

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judiciary organization, function and power

Explain judiciary and the rule of law, organization of judiciary, its function and power. The Judiciary: Judiciary is the third organ of the government which is responsible for the administration of justice according, to the law of the .land enacted by the executive and made by the legislature. The concept of the welfare state is directly linked with social justice with impartiality and expeditiousness. An efficient judiciary is necessary for a good governance as it protects the individual rights of people in their public life. An efficient administration of justice maximizes the responsibility of a citizen in a state. It there is no effective judicial system, then there will he no law at all and the principle of “Might is right” will prevail. Severity of punishment does not but certainty of punishment does compel the offenders to abide by law. In ancient times, the executive and judicial function were combined […]

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Salient Feature of the 1973 Constitution of Pakistan

Salient Feature of the 1973 Constitution of Pakistan

Discuss the salient features of the 1973 Constitution of Pakistan. Salient Feature of the 1973 Constitution of Pakistan: The present Constitution is the third constitution of the country which was drafted and passed by the National Assembly of Pakistan on April 10, 1973. It was authenticated by the president on April 12, 1973 and enforced on August 14, 1973. Following are the main characteristics of this constitution. 1)    A Written Constitution The Constitution of 1973 is written with a preamble, 280 Article, 6 Schedules and a few Amendments. Political Usage’s and Traditions are yet to emerge and develop side by side with the constitution of Pakistan. 2)    Flexibility The Constitution is neither too rigid like the American Constitution nor too flexible like the British Constitution. It can he amended if 2/3 majority of the total strength of the National Assembly approves an amendment in it and when the same is […]

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Types and Examples of Collective Behaviour

Collective Behaviour

What is collective behaviour? Discuss different types and examples of collective behaviour. Also narrate theoretical approaches to the study of collective behaviour. Collective Behaviour: Collective behaviour has been generally applied to these events and refers to group behaviour which originates spontaneously, is entirely unorganized, fairly unpredictable and planless in course of development, and which depends on interstimulation among participants. Examples of collective behaviour include panics, revolutions, riots, lynching, manias, crazes, and fads. Traditional approaches to the study of collective behaviour have emphasized the importance of emotion, suggestibility and irrationality in the understanding of collective episodes. Types and Examples of Collective Behaviour The term collective behaviour has been applied to a broad range of group activities ranging from a rather spontaneous and short lived actions of a crowd to the more organized, structured and long-term experiences of a major social movement. –                   The Crowd We attend the theatre and game events […]

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