Various Propaganda Techniques

Propaganda Techniques

Discuss the various techniques of propaganda with your own examples. Propaganda is a set of the messages intended to influence the opinions of the masses, not giving the opponents any opportunity to rebut the idea. Instead of telling people the truth, propaganda often aims at manipulation of ideas to influence the behavior of a large number of people. So, it presents ideas selectively. Propaganda is related to advertising, where it is about promoting a product. It is also used to influence religious beliefs of society. During the 20th century, the term propaganda acquired a negative meaning in the western countries. It meant, a deliberate dissemination of frequently false, but ‘obligating’ justifications of certain political ideologies. The propagandist seeks to alter the way people understand an issue in favor of the interest group. The five types of propaganda techniques used in advertising are Bandwagon, Testimonial, Transfer, Repetition and Emotional words. Bandwagon: […]

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Characteristics of Language

Characteristics of Language

 What are those characteristics of language that cause problems in encoding and make communication difficult?   Characteristics of Language The general semanticists were first led by Alfred Korzybski, a Polish count who emigrated to the United States. His seminal work, Science and Sanity, was popularized by Wendell Johnson. These scholars have been concerned with language and how it relates to our suc­cess in everyday living and our mental health. They argue that we run into many of our problems because we misuse language. They say we would misuse language less if we used it more the way scientists use it—so that it constantly refers to the realities it represents. The general semanticists point out several characteristics of language that make it diffi­cult to use it carefully. These characteristics cause difficulty in encoding and make commu­nication difficult. • Language Is Static; Reality Is Dynamic: Words themselves do not change over a […]

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Perception, Psychological Factors that Influence Perception in Mass Communication

Perception, Psychological Factors that Influence Perception in Mass Communication

Q.5:Define perception and identify some psychological factors that influence perception. Also highlight the role of perception in mass communication.   Perception: Much of the research showing that perception is influenced by assumptions has come from a group of researchers working at one time or another at Princeton University. These researchers, who have included Adelbert Ames, Jr., Hadley Cantril, Edward Engels, Albert Hastorf, William H. Ittelson, Franklin p. Kilpatrick, and Hans Tech, have presented what has been called the transactional view of perception. The concept is abstract and somewhat philosophical, but essentially it means that both the perceiver and the world are active participants in an act of perception (Tech & MacLean, 1962). The transactional thinkers have developed a number of convincing demon­strations that perception is based on assumptions. One of the most striking, invented by Adelbert Ames, Jr., is called the monocular distorted room. This room is constructed so that […]

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Use of Survey Research, Content analysis, Experimental Design and Case studies

Use of Survey Research, Content analysis, Experimental Design and Case studies

Q.4:Explain why do researchers use survey research content analysis, experimental design and case studies in media research. How these techniques are different from one another?   Survey Research: The sample survey is used to answer questions about how a large number of subjects feel, behave, or are, especially with regard to variables that change over time. Survey research is the study of a portion or sample of a specific “population” (magazine subscribers newspaper readers, television viewers, the population of a community or state). If done according to statistical principles, generalizations can then be made from the sample to the population with a certain degree of assurance or confidence. A sample is less costly than a census, which is an enumeration of all the members of a population. A census allows statements to be made about actual population parameters. However, the sample, which is less costly than a census, forces the […]

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Various Methods of Obtaining Knowledge

Various Methods of Obtaining Knowledge

Q.3:       What are the various methods of obtaining knowledge? Give your own example of each method of learning. Also explain the distinguishing characteristics of scientific method of knowledge.   Various Methods of Obtaining Knowledge: Introduction: Knowledge is a complex, multifaceted concept. Information sources for clinical practice vary in dependability and validity. A brief discussion of some alternative sources of evidence shows how research based information is different. Nursing has historically acquired knowledge through traditions, authority, experience, borrowing, trial and error, role modeling and mentorship, intuition, reasoning and research. Sources of Acquiring Knowledge:     NON-SCIENTIFIC WAYS OF OBTAINING KNOWLEDGE 1.         COMMON SENSE: that which is self-evident 2.         TENACITY: what we have known to be true in the past — holds firmly to beliefs because “it has always been so”. 3.         AUTHORITY: established belief based on prominence or importance of source 4.         INTUITION: something that just “stands to reason” — […]

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The Impact of New Technology on Communication Theory

The Impact of New Technology on Communication Theory

In your view how does the new technology of communication influence mass communication theory and practice?  The Impact of New Technology on Communication Theory The new technologies are introducing many changes to mass communication, and communication theories must be developed or revised to keep up with the changes. One of the ways the new technology is affecting mass communication in general is by giving the user more control over the communication process. Cable television channels and videotapes give the audience member access to specialized programs and material, far beyond what is available on the three commercial television networks and public television. Videotext and Teletext offer the user a wide selection of news stories or other information. CompuServe, a computer information service that can be accessed through home computers, has 550,000 subscribers (Couzens, 1989). One CompuServe service called “Quest” gives users access to more than 700 data bases, each of them […]

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Theories of Mass Communication

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What does communication theory deal with? What are those theories of mass communication which are relating to the concerns of users? Discuss the various hierarchies of media effects.   Mass communication is part skill, part art, and part science. It is a skill in the sense that it involves certain fundamental learnable techniques such as focusing a television camera, operating a tape recorder, and taking notes during an interview. It is an art in the sense that it involves creative challenges such as writing a script for a television documentary, developing a pleasing and eye-catching layout for a magazine advertisement, and coming up with a catchy, hard-hitting lead for a news story. It is a science in the sense that certain verifiable principles involved in making communication work can be used to achieve specific goals more effectively. Many people want to pigeonhole mass communication as involving one or two of […]

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