Society and Social Structure

Society–Social Structure Without society we could not survive. But what exactly is a society? Several conditions must be met before people can be said to be living in one society. First, they must occupy a common territory. Second, they must not only share that territory but most also interact with one another. Third, they must, to some extent, have a common culture and a shared sense of membership in and commitment to the same group. We may say, then, that a society is a group of interacting individuals sharing the same territory and participating in a common culture. A society is not necessarily the same as a nation -state, although in the modern world the two are often identical. The survival of non-human societies depends primarily on unlearned “instinctive” pattern of behaviour. But human societies are totally different. The organization and characteristics of each human society are not based on the […]

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Group in Sociology

Definition of Group or What are groups in Sociology? Group In its sociological sense, a group is a collection of people interacting together in an orderly way on the basis of shared expectations about each other’s behaviour. As a result of this interaction the members of a group feel a common sense of “belonging.” They distinguish members from nonmembers and expect certain kinds of behaviour from one another that they would not necessarily expect from non-members. The essence of a group is that its members interact with one another. As a result of this interaction, a group develops an internal structure. People form groups for the purpose that cannot be achieved through individual efforts. The fact that groups share common goals means that Primary and Secondary Groups Groups are divided into two major types , viz primary & secondary groups. A primary group consists of a small number of people […]

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Sociology as a Science

Sociology as a Science A science may be defined in at least two ways: (i) A science is a body of organized, verified knowledge which has been secured through scientific investigation (ii) A science is a method of study whereby a body of organized, verified knowledge is discovered. Actually, these are the two ways of saying much the same thing. If the first definition is accepted, then sociology is a science to the extent that it has developed a body of organized, verified knowledge which is based on scientific investigation. To the extent that sociology forsakes myth, folklore, and wishful thinking and has based its conclusions on scientific evidence, it is a science. If science is defined as a method of study, then sociology is a science to the extent that it uses scientific methods of study. All natural phenomena can be studied scientifically, if one is willing to use […]

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SCIENCE AND HUMAN BEHAVIOR

SCIENCE AND HUMAN BEHAVIOR

Ours is a society that generally respects and believes its scientists. Science is one of the fundamental reasons why we enjoy our admirable standard of living and have a growing understanding of the world around us. But not all scientists are revered equally. British astronomer and philosopher John D. Barrow opened his 1998 book, Impossibility: The Limits of Science and the Science of Limits, with this observation on the value of science and its practitioners: Bookshelves are stuffed with volumes that expound the successes of the mind and the silicon chip. We expect science to tell us what can be done and what is to be done. Governments look to scientists to improve the quality of life and safeguard us from earlier “improvements.” Futurologists see no limit to human inquiry, while social scientists see no end to the raft of problems it spawns. (p. 1) The physical scientists and engineers […]

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The Exponential Principle in Culture

The Exponential Principle

  The Exponential Principle This theory states that, as the cultural base grows, its possible uses tend to grow in a geometric ratio. To illustrate: if we have only two chemicals in a laboratory, only one combination (A-B) is possible (A-B-C, A-B, A-C, and B-C,), with four chemicals, ten combinations; with five chemicals, twenty-five/ and so on. As the size of the culture base grows by addition, the possible combinations of these elements grow by multiplication. This helps to explain today’s high rate of discoveries and invention. A vast accumulation of scientific technical knowledge is shard by all the civilized societies, and from this base new inventions and discoveries flow in a rising tide.  Values To understand the term “value” in it true sociological sense, it is, absolutely necessary to discuss the elements of culture. Norms Norms are shared rules or guidelines that prescribe the behaviour that is appropriate in a […]

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Different Fields of Sociology & Major Theoretical Perspectives

Different Fields of Sociology & Major Theoretical Perspectives

Sociology is subdivided into many specialized fields, of which a partial list includes: Applied Sociology Collective Behaviour Community Comparative Sociology Crime and Delinquency Cultural Sociology Demography Deviant Behaviour Formal Organizations Human Ecology Industrial Sociology Law and Society Race and Ethnic Relations Rural and Urban Sociology tratification and Mobility Social: Change, Control, Organization, arid Psychology Sociology of: Education, Knowledge and Science, Occupations, Professions, Religion, and Small Groups These topics are not the exclusive property of sociology and other disciplines share its interest in many topics. For example, its interest in communication and public opinion is shared by psychology and political, science,-Criminology is shared with psychology, political science, law, and so on. Sociology is especially close to psychology and anthropology, and overlaps them so constantly that any firm boundaries would be arbitrary and unrealistic. (Hurton and Chester, 1984: 25-27) Major Theoretical Perspectives A crucial element in sociology is theory. A theory is […]

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Paper: Basic Concepts in Social Sciences – II Code 5638

  ALLAMAIQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY Level: PGD/M.Sc Mass Communication Paper: Basic Concepts in Social Sciences – II (5638) Semester: Spring, 2012 Maximum Marks: 100                              Pass Marks: 40 Time Allowed: 03 hours ATTEMPT ANY FIVE QUESTIONS. ALL CARRY EQUAL MARKS. 1.Define social psychology. Discuss symbolic-interaction theory. 2.What does socialization mean? Briefly explain the theories of socialization. 3.What is conformity? What are the various types of conformity? 4.Discuss the characteristics of source, message and audience in the process of attitude change. 5.Explain the concept of “sovereignty” in Islamie perspectives. 6.Discuss the functions and powers of judiciary in a modern democratic state. 7.Write short notes on the following: i)Pressure group ii)Advantages of two party system  

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